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    Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_05 Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_05 Presentation Transcript

    • Motivation Concepts Chapter 5 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
    • After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
      • Outline the motivation process
      • Describe Maslow’s needs hierarchy
      • Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors
      • List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job
      • Summarize the types of goals that increase performance
      • Discuss ways self-efficacy can be increased
      • State the impact of under rewarding employees
      • Clarify the key relationships in expectancy theory
    • What is Motivation?
      • The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
        • Intensity – how hard a person tries
        • Direction – one that benefits the organization
        • Persistence – how long the effort is maintained
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    • Theory X and Theory Y
      • Theory X
      • Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it
      • Must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment
      • Will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction
      • Place security above all factors and will display little ambition
      • Theory Y
      • View work as being as natural as rest or play
      • Will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives
      • Can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility
      • Can make innovative decisions on their own
    • Two-Factor Theory High High Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction 0 Hygiene factors affect job dissatisfaction Motivator factors affect job satisfaction
      • Quality of supervision
      • Pay
      • Company policies
      • Physical working conditions
      • Relations with others
      • Job security
      • Promotional opportunities
      • Opportunities for personal growth
      • Recognition
      • Responsibility
      • Achievement
    • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
      • Managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation.
      • If a manager wants to motivate people on their jobs, he should emphasize factors associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it.
    • McClelland's Theory of Needs
      • Need for achievement (nAch) - drive to excel
      • Need for power (nPow) - the need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise
      • Need for affiliation (nAff) - the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
    • McClelland's Theory of Needs
      • High achievers prefer jobs with personal responsibility , feedback , and intermediate degree of risk.
      • High achievers are not necessarily good managers.
      • Affiliation and power closely related to managerial success
      • Employees can be trained to stimulate their achievement need.
    • Cognitive Evaluation Theory
      • Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation
      • Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation, while tangible rewards undermine it
    • Goal-Setting Theory
      • Specific goals lead to increased performance.
      • Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher output than easy goals.
      • Self-generated feedback is a more powerful motivator than externally generated feedback.
      • Influences on goal-performance relationship:
        • Commitment
        • Task characteristics
        • National culture
    • Management by Objectives (MBO)
      • Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals
      • Common ingredients:
        • Goal specificity
        • Participation in decision making
        • Explicit time period
        • Performance feedback
    • Self-Efficacy Theory
      • Refers to an individual’s belief that they are capable of performing a task
      • Ways self-efficacy can be increased:
        • Enactive mastery – gain experience
        • Vicarious modeling – see someone else do the task
        • Verbal persuasion – someone convinces you that you have the skills
        • Arousal – get energized
    • Equity Theory
      • Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome).
      • Then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others.
    • Equity Theory
    • Choices when perceived inequity
      • Change their inputs
      • Change their outcomes
      • Distort perceptions of self
      • Distort perceptions of others
      • Choose a different referent
      • Leave the field
    • Forms of justice
    • Expectancy Theory
    • Theories are Often Culture-Bound
      • Most motivation theories were developed in the U.S. by Americans and about Americans
      • Not all cultures have the same characteristics as American culture
      • Many cultures desire interesting work and other factors
    • Implications for Managers
      • Look beyond need theories
      • Goal setting leads to higher productivity
      • Organizational justice has support
      • Expectancy theory’s power in explaining productivity increases when jobs are more complex and higher in the organization
    • Summary
      • Outlined the motivation process
      • Described Maslow’s needs hierarchy
      • Differentiated motivators from hygiene factors
      • Listed the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job
      • Summarized the types of goals that increase performance
      • Discussed ways self-efficacy can be increased
      • Stated the impact of under rewarding employees
      • Clarified the key relationships in expectancy theory