HBO Handout Chapter 3 (Individual Differences and Work Behavior)


Published on

BA-MM 201 that's our third handout in Human Behavior in Organization subject (from Sir Joey Espiritu). Just download it. thanks!

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 9 Contracting protects the organization from changes in quantity or price on either the input or output side. We see this strategy used when management agrees to a long-term fixed contract to purchase materials and supplies or to sell a certain part of the organization’s output. Lobbying using influence to achieve favorable outcomes is a widespread practice used by organizations to manage their environment.
  • 4
  • HBO Handout Chapter 3 (Individual Differences and Work Behavior)

    1. 2. Individual Differences and Work Behavior 3 Chapter
    2. 3. Why Individual Differences Are Important: (1 of 2) <ul><li>Individual differences have a direct effect on behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who perceive things differently behave differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with different attitudes respond differently to directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with different personalities interact differently with bosses, coworkers, subordinates, and customers </li></ul></ul>
    3. 4. Why Individual Differences Are Important: (2 of 2) <ul><li>Individual differences help explain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some people embrace change and others are fearful of it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some employees will be productive only if they are closely supervised, while others will be productive if they are not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some workers learn new tasks more effectively than others </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle (1 of 3) <ul><li>Different people are attracted to different careers and organizations as a function of their own: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personalities </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle (2 of 3) <ul><li>Organizations select employees on the basis of the needs the organization has </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skills and abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual attributes such as values and personality </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle (3 of 3) <ul><li>Attrition occurs when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals discover they do not like being part of the organization and elect to resign, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the organization determines an individual is not succeeding and elects to terminate </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. The Basis for Understanding Work Behavior: <ul><li>To understand individual differences a manager must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. observe and recognize the differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. study relationships between variables that influence behavior </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Individual Differences Influencing Work Behavior: Ability and Skills Perception Attitudes Hereditary and Diversity Factors Personality
    9. 10. Diversity Factors <ul><li>Primary Dimensions (stable) </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Physical attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual / affectional orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Dimensions (changeable) </li></ul><ul><li>Educational background </li></ul><ul><li>Marital status </li></ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Work experience </li></ul>
    10. 11. Abilities and Skills <ul><li>Ability – a person’s talent to perform a mental or physical task </li></ul><ul><li>Skill – a learned talent that a person has acquired to perform a task </li></ul>Key Abilities Mental Ability Emotional Intelligence Tacit Knowledge
    11. 12. Attitudes <ul><li>Are determinants of behavior because they are linked with perception, personality, feelings, and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude – a mental state of readiness] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learned and organized through experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exerting a specific response to people, objects, and situations with which it is related </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Attitudes: Implications for the Manager <ul><li>Attitudes are learned </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes define one’s predispositions toward given aspects of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes provide the emotional basis of one’s interpersonal relations and identification with others </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are organized and are close to the core of personality </li></ul>
    13. 14. Manager style Technology Noise Peers Reward system Compensation plan Career opportunities Beliefs and values Feelings and emotions Intended behavior Stimuli Work environment factors Cognition Affect Behavior “ My supervisor is unfair.” “ Having a fair supervisor is important to me.” “ I don’t like my supervisor.” “ I’ve submitted a formal request to transfer.” The Three Components of Attitudes: Cognition, Affect, Behavior
    14. 15. Cognition <ul><li>What individuals know about themselves and their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Implies a conscious process of acquiring knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluative beliefs – favorable or unfavorable impressions that a person holds toward an object or person </li></ul>
    15. 16. Affect <ul><li>The emotional component of an attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Often learned from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer group members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The part of an attitude that is associated with “feeling” a certain way about a person, group, or situation </li></ul>
    16. 17. Cognitive Dissonance <ul><li>A discrepancy between attitudes and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>A mental state of anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when there is a conflict among an individual’s various cognitions after a decision has been made </li></ul>
    17. 18. Changing Attitudes The Communicator The Message The Situation
    18. 19. How to Increase Your Effectiveness in Changing Attitudes: (1 of 2) <ul><li>Concentrate on gradually changing the attitude over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the beliefs or values that are part of the attitude and provide the attitude holder with information that will alter those beliefs or values </li></ul>
    19. 20. How to Increase Your Effectiveness in Changing Attitudes: (2 of 2) <ul><li>Make the setting (in which the attempted change occurs) as pleasant and enjoyable as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Identify reasons that changing the attitude is to the advantage of the attitude holder </li></ul>
    20. 21. Attitudes and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Job satisfaction – an attitude people have about their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Results from people’s perception of their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Results from the degree of fit between the individual and the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Key factors associated with job satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coworkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Satisfaction-Performance Relationships: Three Views 2. Job Performance 1. Job Satisfaction 3. Job Performance Job Satisfaction Job Performance Job Satisfaction Causes Causes “ The satisfied worker is more productive.” “ The more productive worker is satisfied.” Rewards Perceived Equity
    22. 23. Personality <ul><li>A relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors that have been significantly formed by genetic and environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between behavior and personality is one of the most complex matters that managers have to understand </li></ul>
    23. 24. Some Major Forces Influencing Personality Individual Personality Cultural forces Hereditary forces Family relationship forces Social class / group membership forces
    24. 25. Personality and Behavior in Organizations The Big Five Personality Dimensions Locus of Control Self-efficacy Creativity
    25. 26. The Big Five Personality Dimensions Conscientiousness Extroversion Emotional Stability Agreeableness Openness to Experience
    26. 27. Big Five Personality Dimensions 1. Extroversion- refers to the tendency to be sociable, gregarious, assertive, talkative and active. 2. Emotional stability- is the tendency to experience positive emotional states, such as feeling psychologically secure, calm and relaxed. Anxiety, depression, anger and embarrassment are characteristics of low emotional stability. 3. Agreeableness- it is the tendency to be courteous, forgiving, tolerant, trusting and soft-hearted. Someone who gets along with others. Individuals low on agreeableness are often described as rude, cold, uncaring, unsympathetic, and antagonistic.
    27. 28. 4. Conscientiousness- it is the tendency to be dependable, organized, thorough and responsible They tend to persevere, work hard and enjoy achieving and accomplishing things. Employees who are low in conscientiousness tend to be sloppy, inefficient, careless and even lazy. 5. Openness to Experience- it reflects the extent to which an individual is broad-minded, creative, curious and intelligent. Individuals low in openness to experience tend to be unimaginative, conventional and habit-bound.
    28. 29. Locus of Control <ul><li>Locus of control of individuals – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the degree to which they believe their behaviors influence what happens to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internals – believe they are masters of their own fate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Externals – believe they are helpless pawns of fate, success is due to luck or ease of task </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Relates to personal beliefs regarding competencies and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to one’s belief in one’s ability to successfully complete a task and firmly believes in performance capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of self-efficacy have managerial and organizational implications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal setting and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three Dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude- refers to the level of task difficulty that individuals believe they can attain. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength- refers to whether the belief regarding magnitude is strong or weak </li></ul><ul><li>Generality- indicates how generalized across different situations the belief in capability is. </li></ul>
    30. 31. <ul><li>Creativity- is a personality trait that involves the ability to break away from habit-bound thinking and produce novel and useful ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces innovation and innovation is the lifeblood of a growing number of corporations. </li></ul>
    31. 32. How to Develop Employee Creativity <ul><li>Encourage everyone to view old problems from new perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain people know that it is OK to make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide as many people with as many new work experiences as you can </li></ul><ul><li>Set an example in your own approach to dealing with problems and opportunities </li></ul>