HBO Handout Chapter 6 (Job design, Work, and Motivation)


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BA-MM 201 that's our handout in Human Behavior in Organization subject (from Sir Joey Espiritu). Just download it. thanks!

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  • HBO Handout Chapter 6 (Job design, Work, and Motivation)

    1. 2. Job Design, Work, and Motivation 6 Chapter
    2. 3. The jobs that people perform in organizations are the building blocks of all organization structures. A major cause of effective job performance is job design .
    3. 4. Job Design <ul><li>Job design – process by which managers decide individual job tasks and authority </li></ul><ul><li>Job redesign – process by which managers reconsider what employees are expected to do </li></ul><ul><li>The well-being of organizations and people relates to how well management designs jobs </li></ul>
    4. 5. The issue of designing jobs has gone beyond the determination of the most efficient way to perform tasks
    5. 6. Job Design and Quality of Work Life (QWL) (1 of 4) <ul><li>Quality of work life (QWL) – management philosophy that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances the dignity of all workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces cultural change in an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves the physical and emotional well-being of employees </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Job Design and Quality of Work Life (QWL) (2 of 4) <ul><li>Indicators of quality of work life include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accident rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sick leave usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of grievances filed </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Job Design and Quality of Work Life (QWL) (3 of 4) <ul><li>The continuing challenge to management is to provide for QWL and to improve production, quality, and efficiency through revitalization of business and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Job design attempts to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify the needs of employees and the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remove obstacles in the workplace that frustrate those needs </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Job Design and Quality of Work Life (QWL) (4 of 4) <ul><li>Managers hope that the results are jobs that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fulfill important individual needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contribute to individual, group, and organizational effectiveness </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Conceptual Model of Job Design and Job Performance Job context Social setting differences Job content Job analysis Job design Job performance Perceived job content Job requirements Individual differences
    10. 11. Job Performance Outcomes Objective Outcomes Personal Behavior Outcomes Intrinsic and Extrinsic Outcomes Job Satisfaction Outcomes
    11. 12. Job Analysis (1 of 2) <ul><li>The purpose of job analysis is to provide an objective description of the job itself </li></ul><ul><li>The result of job analysis is a job description </li></ul>
    12. 13. Job Analysis (2 of 2) <ul><li>Job analysis gathers and identifies information about three aspects of all jobs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job context </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Job Content <ul><li>Refers to the activities required of the job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>factors that define the general nature of a job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be described as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>broad in scope, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>narrow in scope </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Functional Job Analysis (FJA) <ul><li>Describes job content in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>What the worker does in relation to data, people, and jobs </li></ul><ul><li>What methods and techniques the worker uses </li></ul><ul><li>What machines, tools, and equipment the worker uses </li></ul><ul><li>What materials, products, subject matter, or services the worker produces </li></ul>
    15. 16. Job Requirements (1 of 2) <ul><li>Refer to education, experience, licenses, and other personal characteristics an individual needs to perform the job content </li></ul><ul><li>Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ), takes into account human characteristics as well as task and technological factors of jobs and job classes </li></ul>
    16. 17. Job Requirements (2 of 2) <ul><li>The PAQ identifies and analyzes the following job aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information sources critical to job performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information processing and decision making critical to job performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity and dexterity required of the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relationships required of the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions of individuals to working conditions </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Job Context <ul><li>Job context refers to factors such as the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical demands and working conditions of the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of accountability and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of supervision required or exercised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences of error </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job context describes the environment within which the job is to be performed </li></ul>
    18. 19. Job Analysis in Different Settings <ul><li>Jobs in the Factory </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Motion and time study </li></ul><ul><li>Work simplification </li></ul><ul><li>Standard methods </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs in the New Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Human factors </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge workers </li></ul><ul><li>Team-based </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly stated job descriptions </li></ul>
    19. 20. Job Designs: The Results of Job Analysis <ul><li>Job range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of tasks a person is expected to perform while doing a job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more tasks required, the greater the job range </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job depth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of influence or discretion that an individual possesses to choose how a job will be performed </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Job Depth and Range: Differences in Selected Jobs High Low Low High Job range Job depth College professors Hospital anesthesiologists Business packaging machine mechanics College instructors Hospital bookkeepers Business assembly-line workers College presidents Hospital chiefs of surgery Business research scientists College department chairpersons Hospital nurses Business maintenance repair workers
    21. 22. Job Designs: Job Relationships <ul><li>Determined by managers’ decisions regarding departmentalization bases and spans of control </li></ul><ul><li>The wider the span of control, the larger the group and, consequently, the more difficult the establishment of friendship and interest relationships </li></ul><ul><li>The basis for departmentalization also impacts job relationships </li></ul>
    22. 23. The Way People Perceive Their Jobs (1 of 2) <ul><li>Perceived job content – specific job activities and general job characteristics as perceived by individuals performing the job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two individuals doing the same job may have the same or different perceptions of job content </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. The Way People Perceive Their Jobs (2 of 2) <ul><li>If managers desire to increase job performance by changing perceived job content, they can change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social settings </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. The five core characteristics are: - skill variety - the extent to which a job requires a person to use a wide range of different skills and abilities - task identity - the extent to which a job requires a worker to perform all the tasks needed to complete the job from beginning to end task significance - the extent to which a job affects the lives of other people, whether inside or outside the organization - autonomy - the extent to which a job allows an employee to make choices about scheduling different tasks and deciding how to perform them - feedback - the extent to which workers receive clear, direct information about how well they are performing the job
    25. 26. Designing Job Range: Job Rotation and Job Enlargement <ul><li>Job Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Moving individuals from one job to another </li></ul><ul><li>Individual completes more job activities because each job includes different tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Involves increasing the range of jobs and the perception of variety in job content </li></ul><ul><li>Job Enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the number of tasks for which an individual is responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Increases job range, but not depth </li></ul>
    26. 27. Designing Job Depth: Job Enrichment (1 of 2) <ul><li>The practice of increasing discretion individuals can use to select activities and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Increases job depth and accordingly fulfills growth and autonomy needs </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation is the impetus for designing job depth </li></ul>
    27. 28. Designing Job Depth: Job Enrichment (2 of 2) <ul><li>Managers can provide employees with greater opportunities to exercise discretion by making the following changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniqueness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal accountability </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. The Job Characteristics Model Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Experienced Meaningfulness of Work Experienced Responsibility for Outcomes of Work Knowledge of Actual Results of Work Activities High Internal Work Motivation High-quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism and Turnover Job Characteristics Personal and Work Outcomes Employee’s Growth Need Strength Critical Psychological States
    29. 30. Steps that management can take to increase core job dimensions: <ul><li>Combining task elements </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning whole pieces of work (i.e., work modules) </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing discretion in selection of work methods </li></ul><ul><li>Permitting self-paced control </li></ul><ul><li>Opening feedback channels </li></ul>
    30. 31. Problems associated with job design include: <ul><li>Unless lower-level needs are satisfied, people will not respond to opportunities to satisfy upper-level needs </li></ul><ul><li>Job design programs may raise employees’ expectations beyond what is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Job design may be resisted by labor unions who see the effort as an attempt to get more work for the same pay </li></ul><ul><li>Job design efforts may not produce tangible improvements for some time after the beginning of the effort </li></ul>
    31. 32. Teams and Job Design: Key Characteristics to Address (1 of 3) <ul><li>Self-management. Refers to the team’s ability to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set its own objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordinate its own activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resolve its own internal conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participation. The degree to which all members of the team are encouraged and allowed to participate in decisions </li></ul>
    32. 33. Teams and Job Design: Key Characteristics to Address (2 of 3) <ul><li>Task variety. The extent to which team members are given the opportunity to perform a variety of tasks and use different skills </li></ul><ul><li>Task significance. The degree to which the team’s work is valued and has significance for both internal and external stakeholders of the organization </li></ul>
    33. 34. Teams and Job Design: Key Characteristics to Address (3 of 3) <ul><li>Task identity. The degree to which a team completes a whole and separate piece of work and has control over most of the resources necessary to accomplish its objectives </li></ul>
    34. 35. Alternative Work Arrangements <ul><li>Flexible work arrangements include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flextime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual teams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits to companies of flexible work programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher recruitment and retention rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved morale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower absenteeism and tardiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher levels of employee productivity </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Job Embeddedness and Job Design (1 of 2) <ul><li>Job embeddedness – refers to an employee’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>links with other people and teams within the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perceptions of their fit with their job, organization, and community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sacrifices that would be made if he/she left the job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is like a “net or web” that can expand across an individual’s work, home, and community activities and interests </li></ul>
    36. 37. Job Embeddedness and Job Design (2 of 2) <ul><li>Managers can increase job embededdness by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing employees on teams that are compatible with their skill set and personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting the idea of flexible work scheduling to allow their employees to pursue some non-work hobbies and volunteer leadership opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This will help decrease turnover of key employees </li></ul>
    37. 38. Total Quality Management and Job Design <ul><li>Total quality management (TQM) combines technical knowledge and human knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Managers who implement TQM, design jobs that empower individuals to make important decisions about product and service quality </li></ul><ul><li>The empowerment process encourages participative management, team-oriented task modules, and autonomy </li></ul>