HBO Handout Chapter 5 (Motivation)


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BA-MM 201 that's our handout in Human Behavior in Organization subject (from Sir Joey Espiritu). Just download it. thanks!

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  • HBO Handout Chapter 5 (Motivation)

    1. 2. Motivation 5 Chapter
    2. 3. Determinants of Job Performance Job performance Willingness to perform Opportunity to perform Capacity to perform
    3. 4. The Starting Point: The Individual (1 of 4) <ul><li>Most managers must motivate a diverse and unpredictable group of people </li></ul><ul><li>The diversity results in different behavioral patterns that are in some manner related to needs and goals </li></ul>
    4. 5. The Motivational Process: A General Model The Employee I. Need deficiencies II. Search for ways to satisfy needs III. Goal-directed behavior IV. Performance (evaluation of goals accomplished) V. Rewards or punishments VI. Need deficiencies reassessed by the employee
    5. 6. The Starting Point: The Individual (2 of 4) <ul><li>Need – a deficiency or lack of something of value that an individual experiences at a particular point in time </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies may be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological (e.g., a need for food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological (e.g., a need for self-esteem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociological (e.g., a need for social interaction) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. The Starting Point: The Individual (3 of 4) <ul><li>When needs are present, the individual will seek to fulfill those needs and may be more susceptible to managers’ motivational efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Work-related needs can vary from individual to individual </li></ul><ul><li>People seek to reduce need deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Need deficiencies trigger a search process for ways to reduce the tension caused by the deficiencies </li></ul>
    7. 8. The Starting Point: The Individual (4 of 4) <ul><li>The motivational process is goal-directed </li></ul><ul><li>The goals (or outcomes) that an employee seeks are viewed as forces that attract the person </li></ul><ul><li>The accomplishment of desirable goals can result in a significant reduction in need deficiencies </li></ul>
    8. 9. Motivation Theories: A Summary Overview <ul><li>Content Motivation Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Theories that focus on factors within a person that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energize behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustain behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These factors can only be inferred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Motivation Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Theories that describe and analyze how behavior is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopped </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Founders of the Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow – five-level need hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer – three-level hierarchy (ERG) </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg – two major factors (hygienes and motivators) </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland – three learned needs acquired from the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Application </li></ul><ul><li>Managers need to be aware of differences in needs, desires, and goals because each individual is unique in many ways </li></ul>
    10. 11. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy (1 of 2) <ul><li>Maslow defined human needs as: </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological: the need for food, drink, shelter, and relief from pain </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and security : the need for freedom from threat; the security from threatening events or surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Belongingness, social, and love: the need for friendship, affiliation, interaction, and love </li></ul>
    11. 12. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy (2 of 2) <ul><li>Esteem: the need for self-esteem and for respect from others </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization: the need to fulfill oneself by making maximum use of abilities, skills, and potential </li></ul>
    12. 13. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Related to the Job Receiving a sufficient salary to live on Having sufficient food and drink available Working in a comfortable environment Receiving regular salary increases Having medical and disability insurance Working in a hazard free environment PHYSIOLOGICAL SAFETY AND SECURITY Being accepted by personal and professional friends Working in groups that are compatible Having supportive supervision BELONGINGNESS, SOCIAL, AND LOVE Receiving a high-level promotion Earning an outstanding reputation among peers Winning a coveted award for performance ESTEEM Starting a successful new business Developing and mentoring others Using business skills to start a charity that helps homeless children SELF-ACTUALIZATION
    13. 14. Maslow’s Theory: Key Points <ul><li>A person attempts to satisfy basic needs before directing behavior toward satisfying upper-level needs </li></ul><ul><li>A satisfied need ceases to motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfied needs can cause frustration, conflict, and stress </li></ul><ul><li>People have a need to grow and develop and will strive constantly to move up the hierarchy in terms of need satisfaction </li></ul>
    14. 15. Alderfer’s ERG Theory <ul><li>Alderfer proposes a hierarchy involving three sets of needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Existence: needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Relatedness: needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Growth: needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions </li></ul>
    15. 16. Alderfer’s ERG Theory: Key Points (1 of 2) <ul><li>In addition to the satisfaction-progression process, a frustration-regression process is also at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., if a person is continually frustrated in attempts to satisfy growth needs, relatedness needs reemerge as a major motivating force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this causes the individual to redirect efforts toward satisfying a lower-order need category </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Alderfer’s ERG Theory: Key Points (2 of 2) <ul><li>Individuals are motivated to engage in behavior to satisfy one of the three sets of needs </li></ul>
    17. 18. Alderfer’s ERG Theory: Management Application <ul><li>If a subordinate’s higher-order needs (e.g., growth) are being blocked, perhaps because of a company policy or lack of resources, </li></ul><ul><li>Then it is in the manager’s best interest to attempt to redirect the subordinate’s efforts toward relatedness or existence needs </li></ul>
    18. 19. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory <ul><li>Extrinsic Conditions: Dissatisfiers or Hygienes </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Company procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of technical supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of interpersonal relations among peers, with superiors, and subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Conditions: Satisfiers or Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>The work itself </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility of growth </li></ul>
    19. 20. Traditional versus Herzberg View of Job Satisfaction I. Traditional Job Satisfaction Theory High job dissatisfaction High job satisfaction II. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory No job satisfaction High job satisfaction No job dissatisfaction High job dissatisfaction <ul><li>Based on Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful work </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Increased responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Employee benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations </li></ul>
    20. 21. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Job Enrichment <ul><li>The process of building personal achievement, recognition, challenge, responsibility, and growth opportunities into a person’s job </li></ul><ul><li>Has the effect of increasing the individual’s motivation by providing him/her with more discretion and accountability when performing challenging work </li></ul>
    21. 22. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Achievement (n Ach) McClelland contends that when a need is strong in a person, its effect is to motivate the person to use behavior that leads to its satisfaction. Affiliation (n Aff) Power (n Pow)
    22. 23. McClelland’s Theory: Key Points <ul><li>Needs are learned through coping with one’s environment </li></ul><ul><li>Since needs are learned, behavior which is rewarded tends to recur at a higher frequency </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of the learning process, individuals develop unique configurations of needs that affect their behavior and performance </li></ul>
    23. 24. A Comparison of the Content Theories Maslow (need hierarchy) Self-actualization Esteem Belongingness, social, and love Safety and security Physiological <ul><li>Herzberg </li></ul><ul><li>(two-factor theory) </li></ul><ul><li>The work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of inter- </li></ul><ul><li>personal relations </li></ul><ul><li>among peers, with </li></ul><ul><li>supervisors, with </li></ul><ul><li>subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul>Alderfer Growth Relatedness Existence McClelland Need for achievement Need for power Need for affiliation Motivators Hygiene conditions Higher order needs Basic needs
    24. 25. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Founders of the Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Vroom – an expectance theory of choices </li></ul><ul><li>Adams – equity theory based on comparisons that individuals make </li></ul><ul><li>Locke – goal-setting theory (conscious goals and intentions are the determinants of behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Application </li></ul><ul><li>Managers need to understand the process of motivation and how individuals make choices based on preferences, rewards, and accomplishments </li></ul>
    25. 26. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Motivation is a process governing choices among alternate forms of voluntary activity </li></ul><ul><li>Most behaviors are considered to be under the voluntary control of the person and consequently are motivated </li></ul>
    26. 27. Expectancy Theory: Key Terms (1 of 4) <ul><li>First-Level Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-level outcomes resulting from behavior are those associated with doing the job itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>absenteeism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>turnover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>quality of production </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Expectancy Theory: Key Terms (2 of 4) <ul><li>Second-Level Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those events (rewards and punishments) that the first-level outcomes are likely to produce, such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>merit pay increases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>group acceptance or rejection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>termination </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Expectancy Theory: Key Terms (3 of 4) <ul><li>Instrumentality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The perception by an individual that first-level outcomes are associated with second-level outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The preferences for outcomes as seen by the individual </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Expectancy Theory: Key Terms (4 of 4) <ul><li>Expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual’s belief regarding the likelihood or subjective probability that a particular behavior will be followed by a particular outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily thought of as a probability statement </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Effort Performance First-level outcome First-level outcome First-level outcome Second-level outcome Second-level outcome Second-level outcome Second-level outcome Second-level outcome Second-level outcome Expectancy Theory E P EXPECTANCY Perceived probability of successful performance, given effort E O EXPECTANCY Perceived probability of receiving an outcome, given performance
    31. 32. Equity Theory <ul><li>Employees compare their efforts and rewards with those of others in similar work situations </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the assumption that individuals are motivated by a desire to be equitably (fairly) at work </li></ul><ul><li>The individual works in exchange for rewards from the organization </li></ul>
    32. 33. Equity Theory: Key Terms <ul><li>Person – the individual for whom equity or inequity is perceived </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison other – any group or persons used by Person as a referent regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs – the individual characteristics brought by Person to the job </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes – what Person received from the job </li></ul>
    33. 34. The Equity Theory of Motivation Compares his/her input/outcome ratio to reference person’s (RP) inputs (I) and outcomes (O) and perceives OP ORP IP IRP equity = OP ORP IP IRP inequity < OP ORP IP IRP inequity > or or IP: Inputs of the person OP: Outcomes of the person IRP: Inputs of reference person ORP: Outcomes of reference person A person (P) with certain inputs (I) and receiving certain outcomes (O)
    34. 35. Change Procedures to Restore Equity <ul><li>Changing inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Changing outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Changing attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the reference person </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the inputs or outcomes of the reference person </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving the field </li></ul>
    35. 36. Organizational Justice <ul><li>The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated at the workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributive justice – the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed throughout an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural justice – the perceived equity or fairness of the organization’s processes and procedures used to make resource and allocation decisions </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Procedural Justice: Positive Impact <ul><li>Procedural justice has been shown to have a positive impact on affective and behavioral reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intent to stay with the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust in supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction with decision outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Key Steps to Implementing a Commitment-Oriented Management System: <ul><li>Commit to people-first values </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify and communicate your mission </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantee organizational justice </li></ul><ul><li>Create a sense of community </li></ul><ul><li>Support employee development </li></ul>
    38. 39. Goal Setting: Key Concepts Goal setting The process of establishing goals Goal Specific target that a person, team, or group is attempting to accomplish Goal specificity Degree of quantitative precision (clarity) of the goal Goal difficulty Level of performance required to achieve the goal Goal intensity Process of setting the goal or of determining how to reach it Goal commitment Amount of effort used to achieve a goal
    39. 40. Examples of Goal Setting at Work <ul><li>Developing a new software program within 4-6 months to detect malicious viruses on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Landing 5 new customers or increasing sales of existing customers by 10% over the next 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing waste in the manufacturing process by 20% over the next 3 years </li></ul>
    40. 41. Goal Setting Applied to Organizations Goal Characteristics Performance Rewards Moderators <ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>Desired by Organization Preferred by Individual or Team
    41. 42. Exchange Theory <ul><li>Suggests that members of an organization engage in reasonably predictable give-and-take relationships (exchanges) with each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., an employee gives time and effort in exchange for pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., management provides pleasant working conditions in exchange for employee loyalty </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Psychological Contract (1 of 2) <ul><li>An unwritten agreement between the individual and the organization which specifies what each expects to give and receive from the other </li></ul><ul><li>These implicit agreements may take precedence over written agreements </li></ul><ul><li>May focus on exchanges involving: satisfaction, challenging work, fair treatment, loyalty, and opportunity to be creative </li></ul>
    43. 44. Psychological Contract (2 of 2) <ul><li>Managing the psychological contract is a key aspect of most managers’ jobs </li></ul><ul><li>The more attuned the manager is to the needs and expectations of subordinates, the greater the number of matches that are likely to exist and be maintained in the psychological contract </li></ul><ul><li>This can positively impact the direction, intensity, and persistence of motivation in the organization </li></ul>
    44. 45. Conclusions for Managers (1 of 2) <ul><li>Managers can influence the motivation state of employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If performance needs to be improved, managers must intervene and help create an atmosphere that encourages, supports, and sustains improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers should be sensitive to variations in employees’ needs, abilities, and goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers must also consider differences in preferences (valences) for rewards </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Conclusions for Managers (2 of 2) <ul><li>Continual monitoring of needs, abilities, goals, and preferences of employees is each individual manager’s responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not just the domain of human resources managers only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers need to work on providing employees with jobs that offer task challenge, diversity, and a variety of opportunities for need satisfaction </li></ul>