HBO Handout Chapter 10 (Groups and Teams)


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  • 9 The following suggestions specify the types of changes in jobs that are most likely to lead to improvements in each of the five core dimensions. (1) Combine tasks - managers should put existing fractionalized tasks back together to form a new, larger module of work. This increases skill variety and task identify. (2) Create natural work units - managers should design tasks that form an identifiable and meaningful whole. This increases employee “ownership” of the work and encourages employees to view their work as meaningful and important rather than as irrelevant and boring. (3) Establish client relationships - the client is the user of the product or service that the employee works on. Whenever possible, managers should establish direct relationships between workers and their clients. This increases skill variety, autonomy, and feedback for the employee. (4) Expand jobs vertically - vertical expansion means giving employees responsibilities and controls that were formerly reserved for management. It partially closes the gap between the “doing” and “controlling” aspects of the job, and it increases employee autonomy. (5) Open feedback channels - by increasing feedback, employees not only learn how well they are performing their jobs but also whether their performances are improving, deteriorating, or remaining at a constant level. Ideally, employees should receive performance feedback directly as they do their jobs rather than from management on an occasional basis.
  • 5 Break-even Analysis identifies profit or loss at various sales volumes Return on Investment measures productivity of assets Marginal Analysis compares the additional cost in a particular decision rather than average cost Game Theory mathematical models that analyze multi-party decision contexts Linear Programming for optimally solving resource allocation problems Queuing Theory for calculating waiting lines
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  • HBO Handout Chapter 10 (Groups and Teams)

    1. 2. Groups and Teams 10 Chapter
    2. 3. The existence of groups can alter a person’s motivation or needs and can influence the behavior of people in an organizational setting.
    3. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Groups and teams are not the same </li></ul><ul><li>Group – two or more individuals interacting with each other to accomplish a common goal </li></ul><ul><li>Teams – mature groups with a degree of member interdependence and motivation to achieve a common goal </li></ul>
    4. 5. Teams and Groups Share Many Common Characteristics: <ul><li>They can be formed when two or more individuals interact </li></ul><ul><li>Both teams and groups provide structure for the work and interaction of its members </li></ul><ul><li>Their members can perform specific technical, leadership, problem-solving, and emotional roles </li></ul><ul><li>Members of groups and teams share a common goal(s) </li></ul>
    5. 6. Group Versus Team Differences Formal Work Group Team Works on common goals Total commitment to common goals Accountable to manager Accountable to team members Skill levels are often random Skill levels are often complementary Performance is evaluated by leader Performance is evaluated by members as well as leaders Culture is one of change and conflict Culture is based on collaboration and total commitment to common goals Performance can be positive, neutral, or negative Performance can be greater than the sum of members’ contribution or synergistic (e.g., 1 + 1 + 1 = 5) Success is defined by the leader’s aspirations Success is defined by the members’ aspirations
    6. 7. Types of Groups <ul><li>Formal Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Command Group </li></ul><ul><li>Task Group </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Interest Group </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship Group </li></ul>
    7. 8. Why People Form Groups Attraction Goals Economics Need Satisfaction Proximity
    8. 9. 1. Forming Group forms and situation is uncertain and disorganized Stages of Group Development 2. Storming Turbulence, disruption, and frustration is at highest level 3. Norming 4. Performing 5. Adjourning Share vision, values, goals, and expectations; deviations are not welcome Roles are specific, goals are clear, and results are noted Disbands in an orderly way
    9. 10. Stages of Group Development (1 of 3) <ul><li>Stage 1: Forming </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning stage of group development </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals are brought together as a functioning unit </li></ul><ul><li>Agree to rules of conduct and the goals of the team </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Storming </li></ul><ul><li>Most turbulent stage of group development </li></ul><ul><li>The group confronts conflicts and discovers ways to keep the group focused </li></ul>
    10. 11. Stages of Group Development (2 of 3) <ul><li>Stage 3: Norming </li></ul><ul><li>The group establishes its long-term vision of how it will function over time </li></ul><ul><li>This agreement is referred to as shared values </li></ul><ul><li>The group’s norms are the unwritten rules of correct behavior and decorum </li></ul>
    11. 12. Stages of Group Development (3 of 3) <ul><li>Stage 4: Performing </li></ul><ul><li>Reached when the group is able to begin performing the task it was designed to address </li></ul><ul><li>The group begins to fine-tune its work patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 5: Adjourning </li></ul><ul><li>A functioning group or team is able to disband once the work tasks are completed </li></ul>
    12. 13. Characteristics of Groups Norms Leadership Cohesiveness Status Hierarchy Roles Composition
    13. 14. Composition <ul><li>The extent to which group members are alike </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous group – members share a number of similar characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous group – members have few or no similar characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Group composition can influence outcomes </li></ul>
    14. 15. Status Hierarchy <ul><li>Status – the rank, respect, or social position that an individual has in a group </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals in leadership roles possess status because of their roles </li></ul><ul><li>The individual’s skill in performing a job as a factor related to status </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise in the technical aspects of the job is a factor related to status </li></ul>
    15. 16. Roles Expected Role Perceived Role Enacted Role
    16. 17. Norms <ul><li>Norms – the standards shared by members of a group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed only with respect to things that have significance to the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted in various degrees by group members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May apply to every group members, or may apply to only some group members </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Norm Conformity <ul><li>Why employees conform to group norms is an issue of concern to managers </li></ul><ul><li>Variables which influence conformity to norms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personal characteristics of the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>situational factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inter-group relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural factors </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Leadership <ul><li>In the formal group the leader can exercise legitimately sanctioned power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., the leader can reward or punish members who do not comply with the orders or rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a formal group has no single formal leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>autonomous work groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-managed teams </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Characteristics of Informal Group Leaders (1 of 2) <ul><li>The leadership role is filled by the individual who possesses the attributes that members perceive as being critical for satisfying their needs </li></ul><ul><li>The leader embodies the values of the group </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>able to perceive those values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>able to organize them into intelligible philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>able to verbalize them to nonmembers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Characteristics of Informal Group Leaders (2 of 2) <ul><li>The leader is able to receive and interpret communication relevant to the group </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>able to effectively communicate important information to group members </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Group Cohesiveness <ul><li>Cohesiveness – the extent that group members are attracted to each other and to the group values and accept group goals </li></ul><ul><li>It is the pressure on the individual member to remain active in the group and resist leaving it </li></ul><ul><li>As the cohesiveness of a work group increases, the level of conformity to group norms also increases </li></ul>
    22. 23. Group Cohesiveness: Sources of Attraction to a Group (1 of 2) <ul><li>The goals of the group and the members are compatible and clearly specified </li></ul><ul><li>The group has a charismatic leader </li></ul><ul><li>The reputation of the group indicates that the group successfully accomplishes its tasks </li></ul>
    23. 24. Group Cohesiveness: Sources of Attraction to a Group (2 of 2) <ul><li>The group is small enough to permit members to have their opinions heard and evaluated by others </li></ul><ul><li>The members support one another and help one another overcome obstacles and barriers to personal growth and development </li></ul>
    24. 25. Group Cohesiveness and Organizational Goals Agreement with Organizational Goals Low High Degree of Group Cohesiveness Low High Performance probably oriented away from organizational goals Performance probably oriented toward organizational goals Performance oriented away from organizational goals Performance oriented toward organizational goals
    25. 26. Strategies for Increasing Group Cohesion (1 of 2) <ul><li>Inducing agreement on group goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Making the group more homogeneous in its composition </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the frequency of interaction among group members </li></ul>
    26. 27. Strategies for Increasing Group Cohesion (2 of 2) <ul><li>Making the group smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Physically and/or socially isolating the group from other groups </li></ul><ul><li>Allocating rewards to the group rather than to the individual </li></ul>
    27. 28. Groupthink <ul><li>A decision-making process sometimes utilized by groups </li></ul><ul><li>Irving Janis defines groupthink as the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment” in the interest of group solidarity </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Groupthink: Characteristics (1 of 3) <ul><li>Illusion of invulnerability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group members collectively believe they are invincible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tendency to moralize. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to the group’s position is viewed as weak, evil, or unintelligent </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Groupthink: Characteristics (2 of 3) <ul><li>Feeling of Unanimity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All group members support the leader’s decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members keep dissenting views to themselves </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Groupthink: Characteristics (3 of 3) <ul><li>Pressure to conform. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal and informal attempts are made to discourage discussion of divergent views </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposing ideas dismissed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any individual or outside group that criticizes or opposes a decision receives little or no attention from the group </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. End Results <ul><li>Groups exist to accomplish objectives </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of work groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>objectives are related to the performance of specific tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specific tasks are designed to result in attainment of formal organizational outcomes </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Hackman’s Criteria of Group Effectiveness: <ul><li>The extent to which the group’s productive output meets the standard of quantity, quality, and timeliness of the users of the output </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which the group process of actually doing the work enhances the capability of group members to work together interdependently in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which the group experience contributes to the growth and well-being of its members </li></ul>
    33. 34. Types of Teams (1 of 3) <ul><li>Problem-Solving Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Formed to deal with problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., specific and known problems (usually temporary team) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., potential future problems not yet identified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality circle – permanent problem-solving team </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Functional Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of members from different functional departments </li></ul><ul><li>Formed to address a specific problem </li></ul><ul><li>Members come from different departments and levels </li></ul>
    34. 35. Types of Teams (2 of 3) <ul><li>Virtual Teams </li></ul><ul><li>A number of people geographically separated that are assembled by using various technologies to accomplish specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>Can meet without concern for space, time, or physical presence </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient and successful use of technology is a key factor </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Teams (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>As virtual team members interact, it is important for leaders to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide feedback </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Types of Teams (3 of 3) <ul><li>Research and Development Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Used to develop new products </li></ul><ul><li>Usually composed of members from many different departments or functions </li></ul><ul><li>Can significantly reduce the time required to bring a new product to the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., skunk works </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Managed Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups of individuals empowered to perform certain activities based on procedures established and decisions made within the team, with minimum or no outside direction </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be consistent with the organization’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>business requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>values and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competencies </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Factors Influencing Team Effectiveness Training Communications Empowerment Rewards
    37. 38. Skills for Team Members to Be Effective: <ul><li>Open-mindedness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional stability </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution skills </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul>
    38. 39. Steps for Managers to Help Ensure Teams Work: <ul><li>Keep the team size as small as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain that a sufficient range of skills, information, and/or experience to do the task exists among team members </li></ul><ul><li>Instill in the team a sense of common purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Give the team leeway to develop its own set of work procedures without outside interference </li></ul><ul><li>Help develop a sense of mutual accountability </li></ul>