Defining and Exploring Gamification


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Defining gamification, providing examples and exploring its use in a variety of settings.

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Defining and Exploring Gamification

  1. 1. By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning &Instruction April 12, 2014 EMAIL: TWITTER: @kkapp BLOG:‐notes/ What is Gamification? 
  2. 2. According to a meta‐analysis of data compiled by  Gallup the average company has as many as 18% of  its employees actively disengaged and 49% of  employees not engaged.
  3. 3. “Study of 2,300 people found only 6% of  organizations are successful in influencing  behavior change among employees.” ‐‐Al Switzler
  4. 4. Brief history of… The World
  5. 5. ENIAC's main control panel US Army Photo Located at 
  6. 6. Image obtained from Microsoft Clipart 
  7. 7. We’ve learned and struggled for a few years here figuring out how to make a decent phone. PC guys are not going to just figure this out. They’re not going to just walk in. --Palm CEO Ed Colligan, 16 Nov 2006
  8. 8. This is our best iPhone launch yet — more than 9 million new iPhones sold — a new record for first weekend sales—Tim Cook, 2013. Palm sold to HP in 2010, by 2011 Palm was done.
  9. 9. New Approaches are Needed
  10. 10. Gamification
  11. 11. Gamification Lots of Hype
  12. 12. Gartner Group predicts by 2015,  40 percent  of Global 1000 organizations will use  gamification as the primary mechanism to  transform business operations.
  13. 13. Gartner Group predicts 80 percent of  current gamified applications will fail to  meet business objectives, primarily due  to poor design.
  14. 14. Let’s Play Fact or Fishy…
  15. 15. Rules • A statement is presented – If “true” indicate: FactX – If “false” indicate: FishyX • Text Response: Take out  your text‐ machines Standard Texting Fees  Apply! 
  16. 16. How To Vote via Texting 1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number 2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling do TIPS FACT01 FACT02 FISHY01 FACT01
  17. 17. “Games” and “Gamification” are the same thing. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  18. 18. Gamification is the use of gaming elements integrated into a training program aligned goals to promote change in behavior. Game-based Learning is the use of a game to teach knowledge, skills and abilities to learners using a self-contained space. What is this “game” stuff? Simulation Learning is a realistic, controlled- risk environment where learners can practice specific behaviors and experience the impacts of their decisions.
  19. 19. • Gamification is to Learning Game as: – Part is to Whole – Piece is to Puzzle – Slice is to Pie – Steering Wheel is to Car • Gamification uses elements of games but is not a game in-and-of itself. What is this “game” stuff?
  20. 20. Gamification + Simulation = Learning Game What is this “game” stuff? Content Gamification: Content  changes to be more game‐like Structural Gamification: Game  elements added to propel learner  through content.
  21. 21. Gamification Elements that Aid Learning 1. Story 2. Challenge 3. Mystery 4. Characters/Avatar 5. Challenge 6. Levels 7. Feedback 8. Replayability 9. Freedom to Fail 10.Asethetics 11.Time 12.Rewards
  22. 22. Gamification Elements that Aid Learning 1. Story 2. Challenge 3. Mystery 4. Characters/Avatar 5. Challenge 6. Levels 7. Feedback 8. Replayability 9. Freedom to Fail 10.Asethetics 11.Time 12.Rewards NOT Enough Time 
  23. 23. Elements of Games 1. Reward Structures 2. Feedback 3. Story 4. Challenge
  24. 24. Fishy… if it was that easy…this would be the most engaging  game in the world.
  25. 25. 20% increase in profile completion.
  26. 26. Use coins, points and rewards to provide feedback on  performance, updates on progress , level of correctness  and to show Mastery. Kapp, K. M. (2012) The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. New York: Pfeiffer. Chapter Four. Pages 89-98.
  27. 27. The value, or size, of an anticipated reward influences  the motivational signal sent to the brain only within  the contexts of the reward system. Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science, 37, 519-536.
  28. 28. Receiving a PREDICTABLE reward  releases one shot of dopamine. Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science, 37, 519-536.
  29. 29. Receiving an UNPREDICTABLE reward  releases two shots of dopamine.  Yeah, me! Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science, 37, 519-536.
  30. 30. What can you do? Intelligently add game elements to instruction. Use points, rewards and badges to convey meaning…not simply completion.
  31. 31. Feedback
  32. 32. Encourages players to focus their  attention thoughtfully on the  task rather than on simply  getting the right  answer. Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata‐Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games and  embedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P.  Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295‐321. Provide specific comments   about errors and suggestions  for improvement. 
  33. 33. Leaderboards provide  opportunities for players to  receive feedback about their  performance as compared to  others.  Comparative and  relative feedback
  34. 34. What can you do? Use feedback to inform and shape behavior.
  35. 35. Researchers have found that the  human brain has a natural affinity for  narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts  more accurately if they encounter  them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and  Instruction. 
  36. 36. 1. Characters Story Elements 5. Conclusion 2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution
  37. 37. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  38. 38. . Provide a challenge Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
  39. 39. What can you do? Use meaningful stories. Provide the context for the situation.
  40. 40. Examples
  41. 41. Profiting Pirates Design Challenge
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Source:
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  45. 45.
  46. 46. Since it was launched in the fall of 2006, it has been played over 80,000 hours. It boasts an average game play time of over 30 minutes per game play session.
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Fantasy Election works like this: build a “dream team” of  candidates who are being truthful, transparent and civil on the  campaign trail + get active in Election ’12 = win bragging rights, up  to $25,000 cash
  49. 49. Candidates are evaluated based on  5 categories: constituent  engagement, honesty,  transparency, civility, and public  opinion. 
  50. 50. Fewer than 20,000 Fantasy  Election players managed  to undertake 500,000  positive civic actions in  less than 2 months.  Website received nearly  140,00 unique hits but  only led to 10,000 active  players. . 
  51. 51. Platforms
  52. 52.
  53. 53. VENDOR
  54. 54. VENDOR
  55. 55. VENDOR
  56. 56. VENDOR
  57. 57. Changing Behavior with Games
  58. 58. Changing Behavior Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211‐221.
  59. 59. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  60. 60. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  61. 61. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  62. 62. 22% intervened
  63. 63. 56% intervened
  64. 64. Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes:  Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1‐9. Flying around a virtual world as a superhero made subjects nicer in the real world. physical  world
  65. 65. 1) Games and Gamification are not the same thing but both  are powerful from an influence perspective. 2) Gamification is more than adding points, badges and  leaderboards. 3) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts. 4) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired  outcome.  5) Present to engage and motivate.  6) Feedback should be targeted to specific needs. 7) Keep leaderboards relatively small, by department or  region—not by individual.  Takeaways
  66. 66. Copy of Slides and Notes available at Contact Karl at: