Games, Simulations and Gamification in Learning Design and Delivery
What role should games, simulations and gamification play in learning design and delivery? Games, gamification and game-based learning have entered into the vocabulary of trainers, elearning developers and instructional designers in the past few years. While the use of games for learning seems like a good match, questions arise. How should games be integrated into the curriculum? Can attitudes and behavior change result from playing a game? What elements of games can learning designers borrow from game designers? The answer to these questions can be found in the research on game-based learning. This interactive presentation includes many examples of using game-based learning for performance improvement and highlights how organizations have used games to achieve learning success. Discover how research-based practices fit in with today's fast-paced need for quick, effective instruction.
Games, Simulations and Gamification in Learning Design and Delivery
Games, Simulations and Gamification in Learning Design and Delivery By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University April 26, 2012 Twitter:@kkapp
Agenda 1 2 What are 3 principles for addingHow do you apply game-based gamification and game-ideas tostrategies to the presentation of learning curriculumslearning content? 3 4 Six ways gamification impactsFour motivational aspects of games learning design and developmentthat improve learning recall andapplication?
Google “Kapp Notes” www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes Blog Book Tour Learning Circuits Blog 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2011 T&D ArticleMatching the Right Instruction to the Right Content
Percentages of Impact Type of % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was level Type of of activity in the game. % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the engagement Procedural of the learner in the game leads 14% to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational?
NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. 20% higher confidence levels. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI 04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
Engagement Learning Game Game PedagogyAdapted from Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80
Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Engagement Instructional support to help learners Educational understand how to use the game increases Simulation instructional effectiveness of the gaming Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80
Recommendations 1) Provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.” 3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning.
Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
Four Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Stories & Challenges2. Levels3. Feedback4. Freedom to Fail
Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass
Re‐design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model
It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused her boss of embezzling $10,000. What is the first thing you need to do?
Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity for more accurately if they encounter narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
Recommendations • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.
Games like The Sims provide feedback on many dimensions which provide opportunities to consider tradeoffs and higher level cognitive thinking.
Leaderboards provide opportunities for players to receive feedback about their performance as compared to others.
Recommendations • Provide authentic and realistic feedback.• Feedback should be continuous through out the learning.• Feedback should be instructional and provide knowledge of learner’s performance.• Allow learners to create their own social “leaderboard” of friends.
Summary 1 2 What are 3 principles for addingHow do you apply game-based gamification and game-ideas tostrategies to the presentation of learning curriculumslearning content? 3 4 Six ways gamification impactsFour motivational aspects of games learning design and developmentthat improve learning recall andapplication?
Questions/More Information• http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/ – Recommended books – Samples and Examples• Email: firstname.lastname@example.org• Email: email@example.com• Twitter: @kkapp• Pinterest: Gamification Happenings• Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/gamificationLI “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”