Matching Content to Delivery
ISD
E-Learning
SM page 29
Designing Performance-Based InstructionFacts Concepts Rules
- Elaborating
- Organizing
- Association
- Examples
- Non-Exam...
Facts
 Designing for Facts
 Elaboration-links new information with
relevant prior knowledge
 Superordinate-context of n...
Facts
 Designing for Facts
 Organizing—Placing facts into a
logical grouping (chunking)
 Tables
 Diagrams
 Lists
 Mo...
Facts
 Designing for Facts
 Association—Linking a fact to an
image or another term
 Diagrams
 Labeling Exercises
Jargo...
Teaching with Games
 Employee in Manufacturing Plant
Chemistry
Safety
Science
Spelling
Terms
http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/index.php/2007/05/accidental-learning-and-power-of/
Researchers have found that ...
Fact Exercise
SM page 31
Concepts
 Designing for Concepts
Concept is a class of items that share
common features and is known by a common
name.
...
Tangible
Representation
of a Concept
Conceptual
Orienteering
Conceptual
Orienteering
Triggers
Episodic
Memory
Concept Exercise
SM page 34
Procedures
 Designing for Procedures
Procedure is a sequence of steps the learner
performs to accomplish a task.
 Whole...
Step Three: Lower Machine
SOP Instructions
1. Following your planogram, assemble the
columns of cubes on the floor by locking
each cube in place
2. ...
Think radio talk-
show, not lecture
www.gadgetsgamesandgizmos.com © Karl M. Kapp 2007
Rules
- If-Then
- Cause/Effect
- Concept Application
Procedures
- Whole ...
Create Youtube
Moments.
Procedure Exercise
SM page 36
Problem-Solving
 Designing for Problem-Solving
Problem is previously un-encountered
situation that requires the applicat...
Consider using
the “En Media
Res” technique
Problem-Based Learning
www.gadgetsgamesandgizmos.com
Note:
Teach Problem-Solving with
- Multiple Scenarios
- Professional Experiences
-Realistic ...
Create a learning documentary
of how to do a job, how
decisions are made, how dots
are connected.
Creating
Engaging
Instruction
Classroom
-Group
-Individual
Compare work
Teach a model
Co-Create
Discuss
Answer questions
D...
Problem Solving Exercise
SM page 39
Universal Rules
 Distributed Practice
 Appropriate Use of Questions
 Focus on Job Specific Performance
Say Dadda
What are you thinking?
What are your choices?
Where else does this apply?
What are the underlying concepts?
What mistakes ...
10 Things We Know about Games
for Learning From Research
SM page 42
10. Games Can Influence
People to Behave in a Pro-
social Manner.
First Experiment indicated that playing the
game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater
willingness to help the Darfurian p...
Second Experiment indicated that playing
the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a
greater role taking and willingness to hel...
Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes: 
Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encou...
Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial
behavior. Journal of Personality and Social...
28% helped to
pick up
pencils
33% helped to
pick up
pencils
67% helped to
pick up
pencils
22%
intervened
56%
intervened
9. Games Must be Embedded
into the Curriculum to be
Effective for Learning.
Engagement
Pedagogy
Game
Educational
Simulation
Instructional games should be embedded in
instructional programs that incl...
Example
Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Sek E.D. (2013), February 4).
A Meta-Analysis of the ...
8. Games are more effective
than traditional instruction
when multiple sessions are
involved.
Conventional instruction for a one-off is better vs. one game session
Multiple game sessions better than
multiple conventi...
7. Games are more effective
than traditional instruction
when players work in groups.
With serious games, both learners playing
individually and those playing in a group learn more
than the comparison group, ...
6. Instruction with serious
games yields higher learning
gains than conventional
instruction.
Type of
Knowledge
/Retention
% Higher
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Retention 9%
Percentages of Impact
Sitzmann, T. (2011...
5. Third person view in a
game is better for changing a
person’s behavior than first
person.
First Person View
Third Person View
Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M....
Third Person View
Carey B (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it) The New York Times And Sestir M & Green M CCarey,...
5. While playing a game,
learners will voluntarily do
harder problems and more
work.
A math facts game deployed on a handled computer
encouraged learners to complete greater number of
problems at an increase...
4. An experience as an avatar
can change a person's real life
perceptions.
An experience as an
avatar can change a
person's real life
perceptions. In a study
conducted by Yee and
Bailenson (2006), ...
Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?
A. Person who watched an avatar not
like them running
B. Person who watch an ava...
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar
like themselves run, learners were
more likely to run than watching an
avatar not li...
If learners watch an avatar that
looks like them exercising & losing
weight, they will subsequently
exercise more in the r...
3. Simulation/games build more
confidence for on the job
application of learned knowledge
than classroom instruction.
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional
effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Per...
2. Games don’t have to be
considered “entertaining” to be
instructional.
Do simulation/games do not have to be
entertaining to be educational?
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of t...
1. An instructional game will only
be effective if it is designed to meet
specific instructional objectives and
was design...
Focusing on non-instructional elements
will make the game “fun” but not
necessarily educational. Clear
instructional objec...
1) An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet
specific instructional objectives and was design...
Action Planning
SM page 43
Action Planning 
• Create an outline for making your instruction 
more engaging based on the content covered 
in the works...
Summary and Questions
• Any final questions? 
• Additional questions, follow 
– Kapp Notes (Blog)
– @kkapp (Twitter)
– Fac...
Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II
Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II
Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II
Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II
Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II
Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II
Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II
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Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II

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This is part two of a workshop I conducted. The hands-on workshop focused on innovative learning techniques and provided experiences for learners to apply the learning within the context of their daily assignments. The audience was primarily learning professionals.

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Innovative Learning Techniques: Games, Social Learning and Interactive Stories Part II

  1. 1. Matching Content to Delivery ISD E-Learning SM page 29
  2. 2. Designing Performance-Based InstructionFacts Concepts Rules - Elaborating - Organizing - Association - Examples - Non-Examples - Attribute Classification - If-Then - Cause/Effect - Concept Application Procedures Principles Problem-Solving - Whole to Part Review - Learn Parts - Assemble Procedure - Teach Model - Behavior Checklist - Examples - Multiple Scenarios - Professional Experiences - Realistic Application
  3. 3. Facts  Designing for Facts  Elaboration-links new information with relevant prior knowledge  Superordinate-context of new fact  Coordinate-compare/contrast  Additional Detail Jargon Memorization SM page 30
  4. 4. Facts  Designing for Facts  Organizing—Placing facts into a logical grouping (chunking)  Tables  Diagrams  Lists  Models  Mnemonics Jargon Memorization Roy G. Biv
  5. 5. Facts  Designing for Facts  Association—Linking a fact to an image or another term  Diagrams  Labeling Exercises Jargon Memorization
  6. 6. Teaching with Games  Employee in Manufacturing Plant Chemistry Safety Science Spelling Terms
  7. 7. http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/index.php/2007/05/accidental-learning-and-power-of/ Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Yep, people tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.
  8. 8. Fact Exercise SM page 31
  9. 9. Concepts  Designing for Concepts Concept is a class of items that share common features and is known by a common name.  Example, Non-Example  Attribute Classification Categories Concrete
  10. 10. Tangible Representation of a Concept
  11. 11. Conceptual Orienteering
  12. 12. Conceptual Orienteering Triggers Episodic Memory
  13. 13. Concept Exercise SM page 34
  14. 14. Procedures  Designing for Procedures Procedure is a sequence of steps the learner performs to accomplish a task.  Whole to Part Review  Learn Parts  Assemble Procedure SOPs Step-by-Step
  15. 15. Step Three: Lower Machine
  16. 16. SOP Instructions 1. Following your planogram, assemble the columns of cubes on the floor by locking each cube in place 2. After each column is completed place the top plate on the top of each column 3. Continue until you have all the columns built Visual SOP
  17. 17. Think radio talk- show, not lecture
  18. 18. www.gadgetsgamesandgizmos.com © Karl M. Kapp 2007 Rules - If-Then - Cause/Effect - Concept Application Procedures - Whole to Part Review - Learn Parts - Assemble Procedure
  19. 19. Create Youtube Moments.
  20. 20. Procedure Exercise SM page 36
  21. 21. Problem-Solving  Designing for Problem-Solving Problem is previously un-encountered situation that requires the application of previously learned concepts, rules, procedures, principles  Composition  Decomposition  Metacognition  Teach Model  Checklist  Examples Ethics Broken Equipment
  22. 22. Consider using the “En Media Res” technique
  23. 23. Problem-Based Learning
  24. 24. www.gadgetsgamesandgizmos.com Note: Teach Problem-Solving with - Multiple Scenarios - Professional Experiences -Realistic Application - First-Person “Thinkers” Note: Teach Problem-Solving with - Multiple Scenarios - Professional Experiences -Realistic Application - First-Person “Thinkers”
  25. 25. Create a learning documentary of how to do a job, how decisions are made, how dots are connected.
  26. 26. Creating Engaging Instruction Classroom -Group -Individual Compare work Teach a model Co-Create Discuss Answer questions Draw Create a model Develop ideas Fill-in-the-blank Online Mind Map Example Social Learning/ Informal
  27. 27. Problem Solving Exercise SM page 39
  28. 28. Universal Rules  Distributed Practice  Appropriate Use of Questions  Focus on Job Specific Performance
  29. 29. Say Dadda
  30. 30. What are you thinking? What are your choices? Where else does this apply? What are the underlying concepts? What mistakes need to be avoided? Metacognition
  31. 31. 10 Things We Know about Games for Learning From Research SM page 42
  32. 32. 10. Games Can Influence People to Behave in a Pro- social Manner.
  33. 33. First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  34. 34. Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  35. 35. Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes:  Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1‐9. Flying around a virtual world as a superhero made subjects nicer in the real world. physical world
  36. 36. Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211-221.
  37. 37. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  38. 38. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  39. 39. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  40. 40. 22% intervened
  41. 41. 56% intervened
  42. 42. 9. Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning.
  43. 43. Engagement Pedagogy Game Educational Simulation Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Instructional support to help learners understand how to use the game increases instructional effectiveness of the gaming experience. Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review and discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  44. 44. Example Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Sek E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  45. 45. 8. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved.
  46. 46. Conventional instruction for a one-off is better vs. one game session Multiple game sessions better than multiple conventional sessions Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  47. 47. 7. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups.
  48. 48. With serious games, both learners playing individually and those playing in a group learn more than the comparison group, but learners who play serious games in a group learn more Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  49. 49. 6. Instruction with serious games yields higher learning gains than conventional instruction.
  50. 50. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  51. 51. 5. Third person view in a game is better for changing a person’s behavior than first person.
  52. 52. First Person View
  53. 53. Third Person View Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272- 288 and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203.
  54. 54. Third Person View Carey B (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it) The New York Times And Sestir M & Green M CCarey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203. “Seeing oneself as acting in a movie or a play is not merely fantasy or indulgence; it is fundamental to how people work out who it is they are, and may become.” Ben Casey
  55. 55. 5. While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and more work.
  56. 56. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
  57. 57. 4. An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions.
  58. 58. An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people. Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  59. 59. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later? A. Person who watched an avatar not like them running B. Person who watch an avatar like them running C. Person watching an avatar like them loitering
  60. 60. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  61. 61. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 95-113.
  62. 62. 3. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.
  63. 63. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology levels. 20% higher confidence levels. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.
  64. 64. 2. Games don’t have to be considered “entertaining” to be instructional.
  65. 65. Do simulation/games do not have to be entertaining to be educational? Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  66. 66. 1. An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet specific instructional objectives and was designed as it was intended.
  67. 67. Focusing on non-instructional elements will make the game “fun” but not necessarily educational. Clear instructional objectives must be met in the game. Game must be designed to meet the objectives. H R T (2005) Th ff ti f i t ti l A lit t i Chapter 4 The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review and discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  68. 68. 1) An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet specific instructional objectives and was designed as it was intended. 2) Games don’t have to be considered “entertaining” to be instructional. 3) Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction 4) An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions. 5) While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and work. 6) Instruction with serious games yields higher learning gains than conventional instruction. 7) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups. 8) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved. 9) Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning. 10) Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner. Take-Aways
  69. 69. Action Planning SM page 43
  70. 70. Action Planning  • Create an outline for making your instruction  more engaging based on the content covered  in the workshop. 
  71. 71. Summary and Questions • Any final questions?  • Additional questions, follow  – Kapp Notes (Blog) – @kkapp (Twitter) – Facebook

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