What is Gamification?

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This presentation highlights areas of gamification and looks at some examples from professional organizations and the accounting field.

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What is Gamification?

  1. 1. What is Gamification?  Is there any Science Behind It? By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning &Instruction January 7, 2014 EMAIL: kkapp@bloomu.edu TWITTER: @kkapp BLOG: http://karlkapp.com/kapp‐notes/
  2. 2. Brief history of… The World
  3. 3. We’ve learned and struggled for a few years here figuring out how to make a decent phone. PC guys are not going to just figure this out. They’re not going to just walk in. --Palm CEO Ed Colligan, 16 Nov 2006
  4. 4. This is our best iPhone launch yet — more than 9 million new iPhones sold — a new record for first weekend sales—Tim Cook, 2013. Palm sold to HP in 2010, by 2011 Palm was done.
  5. 5. New Instructional Approaches are Needed
  6. 6. Gamification
  7. 7. Gamification Lots of Hype
  8. 8. Gartner Group predicts by 2015,  40 percent  of Global 1000 organizations will use  gamification as the primary mechanism to  transform business operations.
  9. 9. Gartner Group predicts that by 2014, 80  percent of current gamified applications  will fail to meet business objectives,  primarily due to poor design.
  10. 10. Let’s Play Fact or Fishy…
  11. 11. Rules • A statement is presented – If “true” indicate: FactX – If “false” indicate: FishyX • Text Response: Standard Texting Fees  Apply!  Take out  your text‐ machines
  12. 12. How To Vote via Texting FACT01 FACT02 FISHY01 TIPS 1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number 2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling do FACT01
  13. 13. What is this “game” stuff? Gamification is the use of gaming elements integrated into a training program aligned goals to promote change in behavior. Game-based Learning is the use of a game to teach knowledge, skills and abilities to learners using a self-contained space. Simulation Learning is a realistic, controlledrisk environment where learners can practice specific behaviors and experience the impacts of their decisions.
  14. 14. What is this “game” stuff? • Gamification is to Learning Game as: – Part is to Whole – Piece is to Puzzle – Slice is to Pie – Steering Wheel is to Car • Gamification uses elements of games but is not a game in-and-of itself.
  15. 15. What is this “game” stuff? Gamification + Simulation = Learning Game Content Gamification: Content  changes to be more game‐like Structural Gamification: Game  elements added to propel learner  through content.
  16. 16. Gamification Elements that Aid Learning 1. Story 2. Challenge 3. Mystery 4. Characters/Avatar 5. Challenge 6. Levels 7. Feedback 8. Replayability 9. Freedom to Fail 10.Asethetics 11.Time 12.Rewards
  17. 17. Gamification Elements that Aid Learning 1. Story 2. Challenge 3. Mystery 4. Characters/Avatar 5. Challenge 6. Levels 7. Feedback 8. Replayability 9. Freedom to Fail 10.Asethetics 11.Time 12.Rewards NOT Enough Time 
  18. 18. Elements of Games 1. Reward Structures 2. Feedback 3. Story 4. Challenge
  19. 19. Fishy… if it was that easy…this would be the most engaging  game in the world.
  20. 20. 20% increase in profile completion.
  21. 21. Use coins, points and rewards to provide feedback on  performance, updates on progress , level of correctness  and to show Mastery. Kapp, K. M. (2012) The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. New York: Pfeiffer. Chapter Four. Pages 89-98.
  22. 22. The value, or size, of an anticipated reward influences  the motivational signal sent to the brain only within  the contexts of the reward system. Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science, 37, 519-536.
  23. 23. Receiving a PREDICTABLE reward  releases one shot of dopamine. Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science, 37, 519-536.
  24. 24. Receiving an UNPREDICTABLE reward  releases two shots of dopamine.  Yeah, me! Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science, 37, 519-536.
  25. 25. What can you do? Intelligently add game elements to instruction. Use points, rewards and badges to convey meaning…not simply completion.
  26. 26. Feedback
  27. 27. Provide specific comments   about errors and suggestions  for improvement.  Encourages learners to focus  their attention thoughtfully on  the task rather than on simply  getting the right  answer. Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata‐Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games and  embedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P.  Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295‐321.
  28. 28. Leaderboards provide  opportunities for players to  receive feedback about their  performance as compared to  others.  Comparative and  relative feedback
  29. 29. What can you do? Use feedback to inform learners of errors in thinking and to focus them on the task they are learning.
  30. 30. Researchers have found that the  human brain has a natural affinity for  narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts  more accurately if they encounter  them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green  http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and  Instruction. 
  31. 31. Story Elements 1. Characters 2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution 5. Conclusion
  32. 32. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  33. 33. What can you do? Use meaningful stories. Provide the context for the learning.
  34. 34. Fact. Provide a challenge Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
  35. 35. Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
  36. 36. Training • Course Objectives – Adhere to the proper policy for providing information to clients – Understand what is permissible to share with clients and what is not – Identify three methods of conducting an audit
  37. 37. You are gathering data during the first day of an audit. During lunch, Mary approaches you and tells you that she has something important to discuss. The two of you go to your office and she makes the accusation that the VP of Finance is hiding an account… What is the first thing you should do?
  38. 38. What can you do? Give your learners the “Kobayashi Maru” equivalent.
  39. 39. “Kobayashi Maru” is a no win, difficult situation designed to teach “thinking.”
  40. 40. Putting it All Together
  41. 41. Technology Tower Trivia provides members the opportunity to test their cable knowledge through five cable related categories by climbing the pyramid and wagering points with each question. Make it to the top and win the Technology Tower Trivia. Stuck on a category? SCTE offers a wide array of technical resources and courses to help you strengthen your knowledge in that key area.
  42. 42. Used to help determine what courses are best for you to take from the professional organization.
  43. 43. Gamification of paying off debt.
  44. 44. Femke Herregraven, won the Young Designer Award 2013 for developing a gamified way of teaching international tax laws What if a small company doing international business had a tool available that lets them determine in an easy way how to pay as little tax as possible? The tool www.taxodus.net does just that.
  45. 45. Copy of Slides and Notes available at www.karlkapp.com Contact Karl at: kkapp@bloomu.edu

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