Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Mission Possible: Creating Learner Engagement

962 views

Published on

This interactive presentation provides a learner quest. The audience members go on an adventure to find a missing professor and discover how to create engaging learning along the way.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Mission Possible: Creating Learner Engagement

  1. 1. Mission Possible: Create Learner Engagement Presented by: Karl M. Kapp Twitter @kkapp
  2. 2. Lynda.com Courses: Gamification of Learning YouTube Video Web Site:www.karlkapp.com Books www.karlkapp.com Email: karlkapp@gmail.com Twitter: @kkapp Books: Play to Learn, Gamification Lynda.com: 6 Courses
  3. 3. Design takeaway challenge.
  4. 4. If it’s not too late already.
  5. 5. We need some helpers…
  6. 6. Yes? Yes?
  7. 7. We are going to need more help than that…
  8. 8. We need some agents with fancy gadgets and gizmos.
  9. 9. New Message To: 37607  karlkapp  Cancel AT&T 9:37 AM  73% Text Option: karlkapp to the number 37607 Internet Option: Pollev.com/karlkapp
  10. 10. We need two search parties. First team that finds the professor wins.
  11. 11. XX X X X X XChallenge Action Fantasy Funkadelic Soundwaves No Failure Learning Objectives Cramming X X X X XX X X X Story X XRisk X XChoices X X Mystery X
  12. 12. Brr… It’s cold! Quick, inside.
  13. 13. Look, there is a clue written on the wall. Let me see what is says. Wow, it’s a lot bigger in inside than it looks from outside.
  14. 14. Hmm, it says: When creating engaging learning should you Make it easy so we don’t discourage the learners. or Make it challenging, knowing some will fail the first few times.
  15. 15. Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” It needs to be challenging.
  16. 16. Look! Good games give players a set of challenging problems and let them solve those problems until they can do it automatically. Then those same games throw a new class of problem at the players requiring them to re- think, their now—taken for granted—mastery. They must learn something new and integrate into their old mastery.
  17. 17. Well said!
  18. 18. Actually, my good friend James Paul Gee said those words, I’m quoting him.
  19. 19. Always good to cite sources!
  20. 20. And who are you?
  21. 21. Carolina Jane, a world explorer, I’ll help you solve this mystery. And, help you learn about creating engaging instruction.
  22. 22. So, keep in mind things that are too easy or too difficult will not pique a learner’s interest because they lead to boredom or frustration. Research has shown that challenge is correlated with both intrinsic motivation and motivation related to the desire to seek competence and self confidence. White, R.W. (1959) Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297-333.
  23. 23. In fact, give them the Kobayashi Maru of challenges.
  24. 24. Do you know what elements contribute to flow?
  25. 25. Achievable Task Clear Goals Control Over Actions (Autonomy) Concentration
  26. 26. Novelty Inconsistency Complexity SurpriseIncomplete information Unpredictable Future
  27. 27. Let’s get out of here, it’s freezing. Feels like Cincinnati in May.
  28. 28. Look at this, we’re at the Whitehouse, in Washington, DC. UGH,no it’s the Capital Building.
  29. 29. Whatever, let’s go inside and look for a clue. We’ll take the tour.
  30. 30. Found a clue, when creating engaging instruction, should you start with Written instructions and explanations of terms and concepts. or The learner taking action right away before any explanations.
  31. 31. Not Sure? And, you’re our tour guide? Why does this answer make sense?
  32. 32. Good game designers know that games are engaging because they require action right away. Action draws in the player and encourages further engagement. Instruction needs to be the same.
  33. 33. Too often instructional design is about the content and not about the actions that need to occur.
  34. 34. Make the learner do something Answer a question Identify a procedure. Solve a mystery. Confront a challenge. Pick a team. Make a decision. Hands on.
  35. 35. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics Scott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, Miles McDonougha, Michelle K. Smithb, Nnadozie Okoroafora, Hannah Jordta, and Mary Pat Wenderotha. PNAS Early Edition (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) Check out my folder on this topic.
  36. 36. OK, back to our travels. We need more clues.
  37. 37. Wow look at this place. Come in here, I found a clue.
  38. 38. Look a clue written on the wall. Provide didactic, step-by-step, prescriptive instruction. or Create a sense of mystery and curiosity about the instruction.
  39. 39. Check out my notebook on the topic. It is always a good idea to build curiosity and mystery into instruction. It draws in the learner and provides motivation.
  40. 40. Wait, where did you come from?
  41. 41. I see, a sense of suspense, mystery and intrigue draws people into games and can draw them into learning as well.
  42. 42. I think we are closer to finding the professor, let’s search for more clues.
  43. 43. This seems risky being on this ship in the middle of a storm.
  44. 44. Yes, but there’s a clue below deck.
  45. 45. It says, when creating a game should you… Put the player at risk, they could die at any moment. or Let the player safely explore the environment.
  46. 46. Oh, brother, considering where we are…the player needs to be at risk.
  47. 47. No risk, or danger equal no skin in the game. Get the player emotionally involved by putting him or her at “mock” risk.
  48. 48. What kind of risk do you place into instruction?
  49. 49. Losing (points, game) Not Solving the Problem Social Credibility Recognition Starting Over
  50. 50. Now can we get out of here?
  51. 51. We are in some type of ancient Pyramid.
  52. 52. Yes and there are some interesting hieroglyphics on the wall.
  53. 53. Aah, I don’t see any.
  54. 54. They are over here, genius.
  55. 55. They are over here, genius. It says, when creating a game should you… Encourage activities that might lead to failure. or Create an environment where failure is not possible.
  56. 56. In games, failing is allowed, it’s acceptable, and it’s part of the process. Games accommodate failure with multiple lives, second chances and alternative methods of success.
  57. 57. Research indicates that our brains grow when we make a mistake because it is a time of struggle. Our brains react with greater electrical activity when we make a mistake than when we are correct. Moser, J. Schroder, H.S., Heeter, C., C., Moran, T.P., & Lee, Y.H. (2011) Mind your errors: Evidence for a neu mechanism linking growth mindset to adaptive post error adjustments. Psychological Science, 22, 1284-1
  58. 58. Do you punish failure in your learning design or do you allow and encourage the freedom to fail?
  59. 59. Hey, we’re in some kind of dark cave here at the top of the world.
  60. 60. Yeah, I can’t see a thing, did you bring a torch?
  61. 61. No, I thought you did. Wait, do you hear something?
  62. 62. Suddenly, this face appeared out of nowhere, it was the mysterious “Learning Lady” Riddle me this:
  63. 63. Is it ever appropriate to use fantasy to create instruction?
  64. 64. Challenge, Curiosity, Control, Fantasy, Cooperation, Competition and Recognition. What motivates learners is...
  65. 65. Hey, I know that’s Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically Motivating Instruction.
  66. 66. Fantasy provides two learning benefits... Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner apply old knowledge to understand new things and help them remember the content. Emotionally, a person can connect with the experiences and not bring with it “real-world” concerns or fears
  67. 67. You are now one step closer to finding your professor and solving the case of what makes engaging instruction.
  68. 68. Neat, check out this cool cave.
  69. 69. I don’t like it here. Let’s leave!
  70. 70. First, let me read this clue on the tablet.
  71. 71. When creating a game, do you… Give players choices about what level to enter the game. or Create one path for every player.
  72. 72. Choices, players need choices. Look, let me tell you what motivates people.
  73. 73. People are motivated when they have autonomy, mastery and relatedness.
  74. 74. Hey, isn’t that the Self-Determination Theory and is that a whip?
  75. 75. Why, yes…yes it is.
  76. 76. When given control over their learning, research has shown that learners invested more and attempted more complex strategies than when they had no control. So give learners control. Cordova, D.I., & Lepper M. R. (1996) Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects o contextualization, personalization and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 715-730
  77. 77. Let them choose levels, where to enter the content, what questions they would like answered. Cordova, D.I., & Lepper M. R. (1996) Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 715-730
  78. 78. Oh, what a nice campfire.
  79. 79. Yes, and I think there is a clue in the smoke signals coming from the fire.
  80. 80. So what does it say, what’s the question to solve?
  81. 81. Do learners remember facts better when… Presented in a bulleted list or Presented as part of a story?
  82. 82. People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction.
  83. 83. Speer, N. K., Reynolds, J. R., Swallow, K. M., & Zacks, J. M. (2009). Reading Stories Activates Neural Representations of Visual and Motor Experiences.Psychological Science, 20(8), 989–999. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 9280.2009.02397.x When a person reads about certain activities in a story, the areas of the brain associated with those activities are activated.
  84. 84. Speer, N. K., Reynolds, J. R., Swallow, K. M., & Zacks, J. M. (2009). Reading Stories Activates Neural Representations of Visual and Motor Experiences.Psychological Science, 20(8), 989–999. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02397.x The research found that different brain regions track different aspects of a story. If the character moved, the corresponding region of the brain for physical movement became active.
  85. 85. How does she keep showing up like that? Hmm, yes, I wonder?
  86. 86. Wow, we are at the Taj Mahl. So we are in India.
  87. 87. Yes. So, look what I found on the plane.
  88. 88. It’s a research report conducted in India. With the words “spaced repetition” and “retrieval practice” written in the margins.
  89. 89. Before I tell you about the research, let me ask you a question.
  90. 90. Let me tell you about the study. It used a randomized control group in a trial at ten sites in southeast India with over 500 subjects. Working Indian men (aged 35—55 years) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to either a mobile phone messaging intervention or standard care.. Ramachandran, A. et. al. Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6
  91. 91. “Take stairs instead of elevator.” “Don’t eat while watching TV.
  92. 92. Lowered risk of developing Type 2 diabetes by 36%. Ramachandran, A., et. al.., Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6 Hey, no spoiler alert?
  93. 93. Where did you come from. Ramachandran, A., et. al.., Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6 I know, it’s called Spaced Repetition.
  94. 94. But do you know about Retrieval Practice?
  95. 95. Maybe, tell me about it.
  96. 96. “Retrieval Practice” alone can provide improved recall performance by as much as 10-20%. Require students to recall content to enhance learning. In other words, use testing to reinforce learning—not just for evaluation.
  97. 97. Hey, I have an idea, can you combine the two?
  98. 98. Yes, combining Spaced Retrieval and Retrieval Practice is really powerful. One study in the subject of Anatomy and Physiology revealed retention benefits of between 35% and 61% with average of 41%. Dobson, J. L. (2013) Retrieval practice is an efficient method of enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology information Advances in Physiology Education 37: 184–191, 2013; doi:10.1152/advan.00174.2012
  99. 99. In fact, most gamification platforms use both “Spaced Repetition” and “Retrieval Practice” to reinforce learning.
  100. 100. That sounds like engaging learning.
  101. 101. Yep, hey, where did she go?
  102. 102. I don’t know but those are some good clues.
  103. 103. Come on, Funkadelic Sound Waves!
  104. 104. That is so…not a clue.
  105. 105. With a search party like that…the poor professor’s in trouble. What is that audience thinking?
  106. 106. Now, get back to work you crazy #LUC2017 attendees.
  107. 107. Ah, this is a creepy place.
  108. 108. There is a clue on the back of this…ah…grave.
  109. 109. What does it say?
  110. 110. Never, mind, let me read it. To focus the learner’s attention when starting instruction is it better to use… Behaviorally defined objectives or Questions posed to the learner
  111. 111. I’m cracking the whip on this one…don’t use behaviorally defined instructional objectives to begin instruction. What?
  112. 112. Instead, think of my favorite show.
  113. 113. Create Open Loops Law & Order
  114. 114. Got it, thanks. Hey where did she go?
  115. 115. I don’t know but we’ve got to get back. .
  116. 116. So what did you learn today about engaging instruction?
  117. 117. Ok, so we solved the mystery of engaging instruction but where is the professor? The professor has been here all along, guiding us toward engaging instruction.
  118. 118. Isn’t that right Carolina Jane... Or should I say… Professor
  119. 119. Yes, you two caught me? And I would have gotten away with it, if it wasn’t for you meddling kids.
  120. 120. But why? Because I wanted to create engaging instruction. Think about it.
  121. 121. Let’s see if my little scheme worked. Let’s review what you learned.
  122. 122. Design takeaway challenge.
  123. 123. What game elements and tools of engagement are used in this presentation?
  124. 124. 1) Story 2) Audience Input 3) Questions 4) Mystery/Curiosity 5) Characters 6) Action 7) Feedback 8) Fantasy
  125. 125. Questions?
  126. 126. Lynda.com Courses: Gamification of Learning YouTube Video Web Site:www.karlkapp.com Books www.karlkapp.com Email: karlkapp@gmail.com Twitter: @kkapp Books: Play to Learn, Gamification Lynda.com: 6 Courses

×