Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Social Psychology                                            ofSocial MediaBrian Cugelman, PhDOnline strategy and research...
AGENDA1.   Were Social Animals, However We Connect2.   Digital Persuasion Equation3.   Eight Spheres of Digital Influence4...
WERE SOCIAL ANIMALS, HOWEVERWE CONNECT                                3
MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                          How many of                        these needs can                    ...
SHIFTING VIEWS ON THE INTERNET & SOCIALRELATIONSHIPSBefore 2006                     Beyond 2006• Internet keeps people at ...
A QUICK POLL• Have you ever donated to a cause, because the  organization needed a bit more money to reach  their funding ...
ASCH SOCIAL CONFORMITY EXPERIMENT (1958)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4MkcfJA                                        ...
THE SPREAD OF OBESITY IN A LARGE SOCIALNETWORK OVER 32 YEARShttp://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa066082   8
DIGITAL PERSUASION EQUATION                              9
DIGITAL PERSUASION EQUATION                                                                Click             +            ...
CHANGE                               +               +                 +                                                  ...
HOW CHANGE                                                                          Click                                 ...
MOTIVATION                                +               +                 +                                             ...
ABILITY &                                                                      Click                                      ...
TRIGGER                                                                           Click                                   ...
TRIGGER                                                                              Click                                ...
EIGHT SPHERES OF DIGITALINFLUENCE                           17
PERSUASIVE                                           +               +                 +                                  ...
1. SOURCEWhat it is:                    Key principles:•The person, organization,     •Appealing to sourceor group behind ...
WHICH PHOTO CAN INCREASE                TEXT CREDIBILITY?                                             No photoNGUYEN, H. &...
CREDIBILITY AND IMAGERY       Photo              Goodwill   Trust       High credibility    Higher    Higher       No phot...
Featured by X, Y, Z.Low credibility websites can borrow credibility from higher credibility sources.      22
2. MESSAGE ENCODING ANDDECODINGWhat it is:                  Key principles:•How you express an idea     •How you expressan...
24
Place the CTA where   most eyes land
3. MEDIA CHANNELWhat it is:                   Key principles:•The various media used to    •Select the media channelsexpre...
27
4. AUDIENCEWhat it is:                   Key principles:•The person or organization   •Understand youryou are trying to en...
HOW THE          PSYCHOLOGY OF                  30 HEALTH CHANGING    WEBSITES INFLUENCES                         USERS BE...
5. FEEDBACK ENCODING ANDDECODINGWhat it is:                    Key principles:•How the audience              •Automate dat...
31
32
6. FEEDBACK MESSAGEWhat it is:                     Key principles:•The information an             •Leverage user data toau...
34
35
7. INTERVENTION MESSAGEWhat it is:                 Key principles:•What you express or do     •Build your messages        ...
8. SOCIAL CONTEXTWhat it is:                   Key principles:•The social environment in    •Demonstrate groupwhich a rela...
SOCIAL CONTEXTS, OFFLINE &ONLINE, PRIVATE & PUBLIC                             38
SOCIAL CONTEXTS               Offline                           Online              Classroom                     E-learni...
PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SPACES      Private                    Controlled            Public                     Access         ...
PRIVATE VS. PUBLIC CONCERNS                                         With a group of   In a large complex                  ...
SURVEILLANCE:MAKING PRIVATE MOMENTS PUBLIC  Research bias            Crime prevention Socially desirable            Deterr...
IN-DEPTH LOOK AT SPHERE EIGHT:SOCIAL CONTEXT                                 43
CHANGE AGENTS:   INTERPERSONAL & SOCIAL INFLUENCE       Interpersonal influence                          Social proofThe p...
HAVE YOU EVER BEEN PERSUADED OF SOMETHINGBECAUSE OF SOCIAL PROOF?                           45
SOCIAL PROOF EXAMPLES• A 10 out of 10 star produce is rated 500 times.  No doubt, it must be amazing.• A nightclub forces ...
SOCIAL PROOF AND DONATIONS  Opaque: people               Empty: people              Primed: Starter   cant see the        ...
MODELLING BEHAVIOUR                      48
49
DIFFUSION      OF INNOVATIONS:                            HOW THINGS SPREAD     Opinion     Leaders               ROGERS, ...
ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION                          1                              2                          3   Media Channel...
TWO-STEP COMMUNICATION FLOW                                1                                     2                        ...
MULTI-STEP COMMUNICATION FLOW                                          1                                                  ...
VIRALDIFFUSION
SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS AND INFLUENCE                         Common influence metrics                         •Degree Cen...
TOP WEBSITES ARE SOCIAL OR USE SOCIALALGORITHMS1. Google (Search)2. Facebook (Social media)3. YouTube (Social media)4. Yah...
THESAME RECOMMENDATION          CAN     SPREAD ASTRUSTED ADVICE OR SPAM          Trusted                        Dishonest ...
CREDIBILITY ASSESSMENT AND ACTIVE TRUST                                                         Credibility               ...
SPAMMING REDUCES DIFFUSION    Dishonest spamming techniques undermine viral diffusion              Differential Adaptive D...
60
http://db.tt/kbT8BYY   61
SCARCITY       People assign more value to      things that are less available.                        “I don’t want      ...
LEVERAGING SOCIAL CONTEXTFACTORS FOR SOCIAL DESIGN                            63
FROM SUPPER TO SOCIAL INFLUENCE                 Burger and fries   Chicken Burger   Chicken Salad     Bun                ...
FROM SUPPER TO SOCIAL INFLUENCE                           Beliefs   Attitudes   Behaviours Pay influencers to push        ...
PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE       OF   SOCIAL INFLUENCE Above the surface • What you see and experience • The total effect ...
BEWARE OF UNETHICAL ABUSES       OF   SOCIALINFLUENCE• Fake positive testimonials• Fake negative ratings of competitor pro...
CROWDSOURCED ANALYSIS                        68
69
70
71
72
73
THE SCIENCE BEHIND THIS PRESENTATIONThis presentation is based on a multi-year study of online influence,     that was pub...
Brian Cugelman, PhD Online strategy and research consultant    Want to leverage psychology to    make your websites, campa...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Social Psychology of Social Media

36,285 views

Published on

This interactive workshop introduces participants to several key theories from social psychology and sociology in order to demonstrate how science can be used to design engaging social media applications and campaigns.

The content is presented in a simple format that makes key linkages between our daily social lives and the social world in social media. During the workshop, participants have a chance to learn a number of theories, see examples of how they play out online, and then join a group analysis on the social psychology employed by a number of social media sites and mobile apps.

Questions Answered:
1. What are some of the most popular theories from social psychology that I can leverage to build more persuasive social applications or run more engaging social media campaigns?
2. What’s social influence and how can it help me? How about six-degrees of separation? And what about the strengths of weak ties?
3. Where did all this hype about “influencers” come from and what’s up with the obsession over social metrics? Are they real or just marketing hype?
4. Is it true that all the top websites in the world are driven by social algorithms?
5. What’s the difference between interpersonal persuasion and social influence?

Based on this top paper from a world leading scientific journal: http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e17/

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
  • Login to see the comments

Social Psychology of Social Media

  1. 1. Social Psychology ofSocial MediaBrian Cugelman, PhDOnline strategy and research consultant@cugelman Ryerson University Toronto, Canada 25 Feb 2012
  2. 2. AGENDA1. Were Social Animals, However We Connect2. Digital Persuasion Equation3. Eight Spheres of Digital Influence4. Social Contexts, Offline & Online, Private & Public5. In-depth Look at Sphere Eight: Social Context6. Leveraging Social Context Factors for Social Design7. Crowdsourced Analysis 2
  3. 3. WERE SOCIAL ANIMALS, HOWEVERWE CONNECT 3
  4. 4. MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS How many of these needs can we satisfy without others? 4
  5. 5. SHIFTING VIEWS ON THE INTERNET & SOCIALRELATIONSHIPSBefore 2006 Beyond 2006• Internet keeps people at • Pew Study, The Strength of home, away from friends and Internet Ties shows the net family enhances social relations• The Internet is destroying • Texting helps long-distance relationships couples stay connected (sexting too)• Using the Internet is anti- social • Mobile phones for teens are not phones anymore, theyre a social lifeline 5
  6. 6. A QUICK POLL• Have you ever donated to a cause, because the organization needed a bit more money to reach their funding goal?• Have you ever purchased a product because of top star ratings? How about one star?• Have you ever changed your views on an issue because of an online discussion? 6
  7. 7. ASCH SOCIAL CONFORMITY EXPERIMENT (1958)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4MkcfJA 7
  8. 8. THE SPREAD OF OBESITY IN A LARGE SOCIALNETWORK OVER 32 YEARShttp://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa066082 8
  9. 9. DIGITAL PERSUASION EQUATION 9
  10. 10. DIGITAL PERSUASION EQUATION Click + + + Here =Motivation Ability & Persuasive Trigger Change Efficacy Experiences (8 spheres of digital influence) 10
  11. 11. CHANGE + + + Click Here = Motivation Ability & Persuasive Efficacy Trigger Change Experiences• Agreeing to something - Saying “yes”• Buying more widgets• Increasing support for a social cause• Losing trust in a politician• Deciding to quit smoking 11
  12. 12. HOW CHANGE Click + + + =HAPPENS Motivation Ability & Persuasive Here Trigger Change Efficacy Experiences Beliefs Attitudes Behaviours Not necessarily in this order. Behaviour can shape attitudes, and attitudes can shape beliefs. 12
  13. 13. MOTIVATION + + + Click Here = Motivation Ability & Persuasive Efficacy Trigger Change Experiences Value proposition (-) Demotivaror: Costs, disincentives, barriers, effort (+) Motivator: Goals, carrots, benefit, drivers Behaviour is more likely when motivators outweigh demotivators 13
  14. 14. ABILITY & Click + + + =EFFICACY Motivation Ability & Persuasive Here Trigger Change Efficacy Experiences Ability or self-efficacy dictate what you will and wont do Ability Self-efficacy What you can or What you believe cant do you can or cant do Skill Confidence Learned helplessness 14
  15. 15. TRIGGER Click + + + =(COVERT) Motivation Ability & Persuasive Here Trigger Change Efficacy Experiences Triggering chickens Triggering humans with recordings of with recordings of chicks chirping people laughing (canned laughter) Chicken acts friendly People laugh longer and towards a threat harder, even at bad jokes Trigger. Reaction. 15
  16. 16. TRIGGER Click + + + = (OVERT) Motivation Ability & Persuasive Here Trigger Change Efficacy Experiences Call to action (CTA)Act now while Promptquantities last. Request Offer Proposal Download your Sales pitch free report You were poked by Bob. Click Here Poke Bob back!"Wow! That shirt makes you look20 years younger. Would you like to pay by cash or credit?" Click on this link now!
  17. 17. EIGHT SPHERES OF DIGITALINFLUENCE 17
  18. 18. PERSUASIVE + + + Click Here =COMMUNICATION Motivation Ability & Efficacy Persuasive Experiences Trigger ChangeMODEL This system can integrate hundreds of influence components, but well just focus on the eight spheres. Cugelman, B., Thelwall, M., & Dawes, P. (2009). Communication-Based Influence Components Model. Paper presented at the Persuasive 2009, Claremont.
  19. 19. 1. SOURCEWhat it is: Key principles:•The person, organization, •Appealing to sourceor group behind a website, credibility boostssocial media profile, ad, or persuasivenessmessage •Build on the three components of credibility: 1. Expertise 2. Trustworthiness 3. Visual appeal 19
  20. 20. WHICH PHOTO CAN INCREASE TEXT CREDIBILITY? No photoNGUYEN, H. & MASTHOFF, J. (2007) Is it me or what I say? Source image and persuasion. Persuasive 07. Springer.
  21. 21. CREDIBILITY AND IMAGERY Photo Goodwill Trust High credibility Higher Higher No photo Middle Middle Low credibility Lower Lower Readers perceptions of text credibility is influenced by photo credibility Dont underestimate the contribution of visuals towards perceived credibility 21
  22. 22. Featured by X, Y, Z.Low credibility websites can borrow credibility from higher credibility sources. 22
  23. 23. 2. MESSAGE ENCODING ANDDECODINGWhat it is: Key principles:•How you express an idea •How you expressand how the person something can strengtheninterprets it or weaken what you say•Expression can be spoken, •Encode messages so thewritten, symbolic audience can rapidly understand them 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. Place the CTA where most eyes land
  26. 26. 3. MEDIA CHANNELWhat it is: Key principles:•The various media used to •Select the media channelsexpress something most suited to your target audience•Eg. Written words, spokendialogue, photos, video, •Make it easy for theminteractive websites, email engage with the media 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 4. AUDIENCEWhat it is: Key principles:•The person or organization •Understand youryou are trying to engage audiences motivations andand influence psychological hot buttons•It comprises their •Frame interaction arounddemographics, traits, and motivations and leveragepsychology hot buttons 28
  29. 29. HOW THE PSYCHOLOGY OF 30 HEALTH CHANGING WEBSITES INFLUENCES USERS BEHAVIOURd CUGELMAN, B., THELWALL, M., & DAWES, P. (2011) Online interventions for social marketing health behavior change campaigns: A meta-analysis of psychological architectures and adherence factors. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13(1), e17. http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e17/ 29
  30. 30. 5. FEEDBACK ENCODING ANDDECODINGWhat it is: Key principles:•How the audience •Automate data collectionexpresses and transmits whenever possibletheir feedback to you, andhow you interpret it •Incentivize requests for user information•Some of this is contributedvoluntarily, but most is •Just get what you needencoded automatically initially, then incentive data collection over time 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 6. FEEDBACK MESSAGEWhat it is: Key principles:•The information an •Leverage user data toaudience shares with the tailor personalized andsource that is used to tailor relevant messagesmessages•In other words, any data •Mine trends amongcollected about a user that populations to buildis processed and acted processes that helpupon individuals•This is the foundation forrelationship building 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 7. INTERVENTION MESSAGEWhat it is: Key principles:•What you express or do •Build your messages around your audiences•In other words, the motivation, make it easy,tangible communication or and leverage persuasionaction you express to anaudience •Research will help you identify the influence components that matter 36
  37. 37. 8. SOCIAL CONTEXTWhat it is: Key principles:•The social environment in •Demonstrate groupwhich a relationship occurs behaviour to leverage social norms and pressures•This includes society,whether virtual or "real" •Play on our competitive nature and scarcity The rest of this presentation will only look at this sphere. 37
  38. 38. SOCIAL CONTEXTS, OFFLINE &ONLINE, PRIVATE & PUBLIC 38
  39. 39. SOCIAL CONTEXTS Offline Online Classroom E-learning platform Shouting out to people on the street Twitter Sharing thoughts with friends during Sharing thoughts Facebook a night out Academic conference networking Email discussion group 39
  40. 40. PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SPACES Private Controlled Public Access Twitter Facebook SMS (txting) Lined in Discussion group Email 40
  41. 41. PRIVATE VS. PUBLIC CONCERNS With a group of In a large complex Living alone on a close & trusted social environment desert island friends (school or work)Care about your Probably not Possibly Probably looks?Worry about your Probably not Possibly Probably social status?Care what others Possibly Possibly Probably think?Willingness to say whatever you Probably Probably not think? 41
  42. 42. SURVEILLANCE:MAKING PRIVATE MOMENTS PUBLIC Research bias Crime prevention Socially desirable Deterrence answers Surfing the net Employability at work Never posting Cautious about anything that could Cameras | Internet usage the sites we visit tracking | Friends posting & harm our reputation tagging your photo on Facebook. 70% of employers have rejected Surveillance moves us from a applicants due to online information. private to a public social context. 42
  43. 43. IN-DEPTH LOOK AT SPHERE EIGHT:SOCIAL CONTEXT 43
  44. 44. CHANGE AGENTS: INTERPERSONAL & SOCIAL INFLUENCE Interpersonal influence Social proofThe persuasive experience resulting from The principle that we determine whats one-on-one interaction. correct by following what other people show to be correct. 44
  45. 45. HAVE YOU EVER BEEN PERSUADED OF SOMETHINGBECAUSE OF SOCIAL PROOF? 45
  46. 46. SOCIAL PROOF EXAMPLES• A 10 out of 10 star produce is rated 500 times. No doubt, it must be amazing.• A nightclub forces people to line-up outside for hours. If theyre enduring that to get in, it must be great.• The "most popular" download software must be the "best". 46
  47. 47. SOCIAL PROOF AND DONATIONS Opaque: people Empty: people Primed: Starter cant see the dont see the social tips show people social norm norm in action what to do Donations Donations Donations www.socialmediacafe.ca www.socialmediacafe.ca www.socialmediacafe.ca $1.50 $50 + 47
  48. 48. MODELLING BEHAVIOUR 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS: HOW THINGS SPREAD Opinion Leaders ROGERS, E. (2003) Diffusion of innovations. (5 ed.). New York: Free Press. 50
  51. 51. ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION 1 2 3 Media Channel 4 5Older, eroded model 51
  52. 52. TWO-STEP COMMUNICATION FLOW 1 2 3 Media Channel 4 5 Opinion LeaderKats and Lazerfeld (1955) 52
  53. 53. MULTI-STEP COMMUNICATION FLOW 1 2 3 Media Channel Supporter 4 + Opinion Opponent Leader - 5 Opinion LeaderSlightly updated model Opinion Leaders
  54. 54. VIRALDIFFUSION
  55. 55. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS AND INFLUENCE Common influence metrics •Degree Centrality •Closeness •Betweenness •Coreness 55
  56. 56. TOP WEBSITES ARE SOCIAL OR USE SOCIALALGORITHMS1. Google (Search)2. Facebook (Social media)3. YouTube (Social media)4. Yahoo! (Search) •5 Search5. Windows Live (Search)6. Baidu.com (Search) •5 Social media7. Wikipedia (Social media)8. Blogger.com (Social media)9. Twitter (Social media)10. QQ.COM (Search) Based on Alexa ranking retrieved 12 Oct 2010 56
  57. 57. THESAME RECOMMENDATION CAN SPREAD ASTRUSTED ADVICE OR SPAM Trusted Dishonest recommendation marketing spam I dont like spam! or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=anwy2MPT5RE 57
  58. 58. CREDIBILITY ASSESSMENT AND ACTIVE TRUST Credibility How recommendations perception are regarded 1. Advice from a trusted expert High Valuable advice 2. Advice from a Promising, but trusted person, but Medium not fully not an expert trustworthy 3. Advice from an unknown source Low Marketing spam A study on how source credibility and trust relate to user behaviour: Cugelman, B., Thelwall, M. & Dawes, P. (2009) The dimensions of website credibility and their relation to active trust and behavioural impact. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. http://wlv.openrepository.com/wlv/bitstream/2436/85974/4/Cugelman_2009_website_credibility.pdf 58
  59. 59. SPAMMING REDUCES DIFFUSION Dishonest spamming techniques undermine viral diffusion Differential Adaptive Diffusion: Understanding Diversity and Learning Whom to Trust in Viral Marketing 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. http://db.tt/kbT8BYY 61
  62. 62. SCARCITY People assign more value to things that are less available. “I don’t want to belong to any club that will accept people like me as a member.” Groucho Marx 62
  63. 63. LEVERAGING SOCIAL CONTEXTFACTORS FOR SOCIAL DESIGN 63
  64. 64. FROM SUPPER TO SOCIAL INFLUENCE Burger and fries Chicken Burger Chicken Salad Bun   Beef patty Chicken breast   Fries   Salad  64
  65. 65. FROM SUPPER TO SOCIAL INFLUENCE Beliefs Attitudes Behaviours Pay influencers to push your idea   Testimonials from trusted experts   Show how popular it is   Incentivize personal affiliate marketing   Make it rare and time bound  65
  66. 66. PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE Above the surface • What you see and experience • The total effect Below the surface • Social proof • Modelling behaviour • Influencer endorsement • Viral spread leveraging social trust • Scarcity 66
  67. 67. BEWARE OF UNETHICAL ABUSES OF SOCIALINFLUENCE• Fake positive testimonials• Fake negative ratings of competitor products• Tricking people into inviting their friends to join social networks• Affiliate marketing portals that masquerade as impartial and honest advisors• An important email from a fried, which is really a virus exploiting your social trust 67
  68. 68. CROWDSOURCED ANALYSIS 68
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. 71
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. 73
  74. 74. THE SCIENCE BEHIND THIS PRESENTATIONThis presentation is based on a multi-year study of online influence, that was published in the worlds leading scientific journal on eHealth, mHealth and medical informatics. Get the study here: http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e17/ 74
  75. 75. Brian Cugelman, PhD Online strategy and research consultant Want to leverage psychology to make your websites, campaigns, or digital products more engaging and persuasive? Get in touch. www.alterspark.com@AlterSpark alterspark alterspark alterspark 75

×