The Influence of Technology on
the Future of Learning
By:
Karl M. Kapp, Ed.D.
Professor, Instructional Technology
Bloomsbu...
Takeaway Challenge
Resources
Available January 2014
www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes
Karl M. Kapp
Twitter: @kkapp
Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu
BLOG: ht...
Brief history of…
The World
We’ve learned and struggled for a few
years here figuring out how to make a
decent phone. PC guys are not going
to just fi...
This is our best iPhone launch yet — more than
9 million new iPhones sold — a new record for
first weekend sales—Tim Cook,...
ENIAC's main control panel
4 23
What actions should I
take based on this
information?
What variables do I
balance to keep my
person happy?
How should I
manage my time?
What leadership
strategy should I
use?
What activities give
me the most return
for my efforts?
Can I trust this
person who wants
to team with me to
accomplish a ...
What can we create
together?
New
Approaches
are Needed
Let’s Play
Fact or Fishy…
Rules
• A statement is presented
– If “true” indicate: FactX
– If “false” indicate: FishyX
• Text Response:
Take out 
your...
We are five years away
from truly adaptive
learning?
Is that Fact or Fishy?
FISHY
“What is the first step you
would take to solve this
problem?”
2(3X-1)=1
Level of
Learner
Level of
Knowledge
Anticipated
Response
Example
Problem
2(3X-1)=1
Skill
Novice
Learner
Basic Incorrect
An...
Concepts
A
B
C
D
1
2
3
4
Procedural
Content
Assessment
A
1
C
3
Identified Areas of
Deficiency/
CONTENT LEARNING
NEEDS
Deli...
Give learner choices into the
content.
What can you do?
Create choices for the learner when
starting a learning module.
Adding points, badges and
leaderboard to any training
makes it awesome!
Is that Fact or Fishy?
Use game-based mechanics,
aesthetics and game thinking to
engage people, motivate action,
promote learning, and solve
prob...
… if it was that easy…this would be the most engaging 
game in the world.
Agenda
• Five Bottom Line Case Studies
– Retail
– Marketing Product
– On Boarding
• Quick Engagement Case Studies
• Lesson...
Pep Boys has over 700 stores in 35 states and 
Puerto Rico; those stores have more than 7,000 
service bays. Does over $2 ...
Associates received daily reinforcement of 
the monthly safety and loss prevention 
training.
In a quiz‐type game, associa...
If they answered correctly, they played a slot‐
machine game titled “Quiz to Win” for a chance to 
win cash prizes
If answ...
Business Results
• Voluntary participation rate of over 95 %. 
• Safety incidents and claim counts reduced by more than 45...
Business Results
• Voluntary participation rate of over 95 %. 
• Safety incidents and claim counts reduced by more than 45...
Gamification
Elements of
that Aid
Learning
1. Challenge
2. Mystery
3. Avatars
4. Stories & Challenges
5. Levels
6. Feedbac...
What can you do?
Intelligently add game elements to
instruction, create a “drip” approach
to instruction.
In a Meta-Analysis…
Games are more effective
for learning than lectures.
Is that Fact or Fishy?
Type of
Knowledge
/Retention
% Higher
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Retention 9%
Percentages of Impact Over
Traditional T...
Fact
Type of
Knowledge
/Retention
% Higher
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Retention 9%
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic...
Type of
Knowledge
/Retention
% Higher
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Retention 9%
Percentages of Impact
Sitzmann, T. (2011...
What can you do?
Focus on interactivity within the
learning, force the learner interact
with the content.
MOOCs (Massively Open
Online Courses) have
attrition rates as high as
90%.
Is that Fact or Fishy?
The absence of instructional
design is often cited as a reason
for the huge attrition rate that has
been observed.
The pro...
What can you do?
Apply instructional design strategies
to courses…interactivity, mystery, cliff
hangers…Avoid Death by Lec...
Simulation/games build
more confidence for on the
job application of learned
knowledge than classroom
instruction.
Is that...
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional
effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Per...
What can you do?
Simulate what the learner actually has
to do on the job.
An on-screen character is
distracting to the learner.
Is that Fact or Fishy?
On transfer tests involving different word problems, the
group who had a character generated 30% more correct
answers than...
Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?
A. Person who watched an avatar that did
not look like them running
B. Person wh...
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like
themselves run, learners were more likely
to run than watching an avatar not li...
If learners watch an avatar that
looks like them exercising & losing
weight, they will subsequently
exercise more in the r...
Avatar as Teacher
Research indicates that learners perceive,
interact socially with and are influenced by
anthropomorphic ...
http://www.codebaby.com/showcase/elearning-showcase/
http://codebaby.com/elearning‐solutions/examples/
What can you do?
Use characters in your learning
design.
Learners remember facts better…
When presented as bulleted
list rather than presented as
a story.
Is that Fact or Fishy?
Researchers have found that the
human brain has a natural affinity
for narrative construction.
Yep, People tend to remembe...
1. Characters
Story Elements
5. Conclusion
2. Plot (something has to happen).
3. Tension
4. Resolution
NikePlus Stats for Karl
Think Radio talk-
show, not lecture
Create a learning
“reality” show.
What can you do?
Use stories. Provide the context for
the learning.
Think NPR instead of “lecture.”
Graphic Novels and eBooks
should not be used for
“Serious Training.”
Is that Fact or Fishy?
http://www.worldwarfighter.com/hajikamal/activity/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=WOQhduHFp2I
What can you do?
Create a graphic novel for learning.
Introduce a subject, reinforce
learning.
Games can influence
people to behave in a
positive manner.
Is that Fact or Fishy?
Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial
behavior. Journal of Personality and Social...
28% helped to
pick up
pencils
33% helped to
pick up
pencils
67% helped to
pick up
pencils
22%
intervened
56%
intervened
What can you do?
Create a game to influence
learners to interact favorably with
your content.
One way to engage learners is to…
Present them with a difficult
challenge.
Is that Fact or Fishy?
Fact.
Provide a challenge
Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology...
Re-design the Instruction to
Start with a Challenge
Investigatory Training
• Course Objectives
– Identify the Forms Required for an
Investigation
– Practice Interview Techniq...
It is your first day on the job as an investigator and
Jane, an employee in Accounting, just accused her
boss of embezzlin...
For software training think
“Koboshyi Maru”
What can you do?
Give your learners the “Koboshyi
Maru.”
Let’s look at an example idea…
Choose Your Mentor
Mary, a stay at home
Mom with two kids.
Rick a retired
military officer.
Dashanna,recently
graduated fr...
Demonstration of Technique
with Teaching Content
Hi, my name is Mary
and I want to explain
to you how I take calls.
Watch me as I answer
a customer inquiry.
Did you hear what I did when the
customer started getting upset? I
follow our CUSTOMER FIRST
rules. One of the steps is to...
Let’s Review our
CUSTOMER FIRST rules.
The first rule is …..
This rule is in place to allow the customer to..
Keep in mind...
Guided Walk Through of
Process with Content Tips
Now, you try. I’ll guide you
through the process as you take
the call. You’ll only hear audio
from the client because that...
Oops, you forgot to insert a key
piece of information. This
information is needed if you are
going to remove a feature fro...
On Your Own
3:49 MinHello, yeah, I have a major
problem with my service and I
am frustrated.
Your Turn….
Activity: Interactive Learning Design
Your Task
• Create an interactive learning activity before lunch.
The Process 
• Tea...
Build your own story.
• Learning Objective
• Challenge
• Feedback
• Characters (create profile and
traits)
• Activities
Game Design
Create a Learning Game.
• Learning Objective
• Challenge
• Rules
• How to Play
Covert Takeaways
• Learning should be engaging.
• Stories provide a context for learning.
• It is ok for a learner to stru...
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning
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Shares needs for new learning methods: MOOCs, gamification, adaptive learning, storytelling

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Karl Kapp: Influence of Technology on Learning

  1. 1. The Influence of Technology on the Future of Learning By: Karl M. Kapp, Ed.D. Professor, Instructional Technology Bloomsburg University September 25, 2013
  2. 2. Takeaway Challenge
  3. 3. Resources Available January 2014 www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes Karl M. Kapp Twitter: @kkapp Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu BLOG: http://karlkapp.com/kapp‐notes/
  4. 4. Brief history of… The World
  5. 5. We’ve learned and struggled for a few years here figuring out how to make a decent phone. PC guys are not going to just figure this out. They’re not going to just walk in. --Palm CEO Ed Colligan, 16 Nov 2006
  6. 6. This is our best iPhone launch yet — more than 9 million new iPhones sold — a new record for first weekend sales—Tim Cook, 2013. Palm sold to HP in 2010, by 2011 Palm was done.
  7. 7. ENIAC's main control panel
  8. 8. 4 23
  9. 9. What actions should I take based on this information?
  10. 10. What variables do I balance to keep my person happy? How should I manage my time?
  11. 11. What leadership strategy should I use?
  12. 12. What activities give me the most return for my efforts? Can I trust this person who wants to team with me to accomplish a goal?
  13. 13. What can we create together?
  14. 14. New Approaches are Needed
  15. 15. Let’s Play Fact or Fishy…
  16. 16. Rules • A statement is presented – If “true” indicate: FactX – If “false” indicate: FishyX • Text Response: Take out  your text‐ machines Standard Texting Fees  Apply!
  17. 17. We are five years away from truly adaptive learning? Is that Fact or Fishy?
  18. 18. FISHY
  19. 19. “What is the first step you would take to solve this problem?” 2(3X-1)=1
  20. 20. Level of Learner Level of Knowledge Anticipated Response Example Problem 2(3X-1)=1 Skill Novice Learner Basic Incorrect Answer I don’t know No answer, no idea how to work problem. None at this point. Intermediate Learner Intermediate Writing down the steps required to obtain the answer. 2*3X-2*1=1 6X-2=1 6X-2=1 6X=3 6X/3=3/3 2X=1 X=1/2 X=.5 Expanding values in brackets, work through the equation. Learner may start at any level of the steps. Expert Advanced States the answer. No need to write down steps. 6X=3 or X=.5 Multiplying both sides of the equation by the same number while incorporating basic and advanced skills.
  21. 21. Concepts A B C D 1 2 3 4 Procedural Content Assessment A 1 C 3 Identified Areas of Deficiency/ CONTENT LEARNING NEEDS Delivery
  22. 22. Give learner choices into the content.
  23. 23. What can you do? Create choices for the learner when starting a learning module.
  24. 24. Adding points, badges and leaderboard to any training makes it awesome! Is that Fact or Fishy?
  25. 25. Use game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game thinking to engage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  26. 26. … if it was that easy…this would be the most engaging  game in the world.
  27. 27. Agenda • Five Bottom Line Case Studies – Retail – Marketing Product – On Boarding • Quick Engagement Case Studies • Lessons Learned
  28. 28. Pep Boys has over 700 stores in 35 states and  Puerto Rico; those stores have more than 7,000  service bays. Does over $2 billion dollars of  business a year by focusing on meeting the needs  of the do‐it‐yourself crowd as well as people who  come in for routine and emergency services and  sales to professional garages. 
  29. 29. Associates received daily reinforcement of  the monthly safety and loss prevention  training. In a quiz‐type game, associates answer quick,  targeted questions related to risk, loss  prevention, safety, and operational policies  and procedures—standard questions in these  areas. 
  30. 30. If they answered correctly, they played a slot‐ machine game titled “Quiz to Win” for a chance to  win cash prizes If answered incorrectly, the system immediately  presented a short training piece designed to  specifically address the topic covered in the initial  question. Questions repeated at various intervals  until the associate demonstrated mastery of the  topic. 
  31. 31. Business Results • Voluntary participation rate of over 95 %.  • Safety incidents and claim counts reduced by more than 45%  with an increase in the number of stores and employees.  • Reduction in shrinkage has been at a level of 55 %. • In the case of internal loss, each time a burst of content related  to employee theft is pushed out, they see at least a 60%  increase in their “Integrity Pays” hotline calls, resulting in a  direct reduction in inventory loss.
  32. 32. Business Results • Voluntary participation rate of over 95 %.  • Safety incidents and claim counts reduced by more than 45%  with an increase in the number of stores and employees.  • Reduction in shrinkage has been at a level of 55 %. • In the case of internal loss, each time a burst of content related  to employee theft is pushed out, they see at least a 60%  increase in their “Integrity Pays” hotline calls, resulting in a  direct reduction in inventory loss.
  33. 33. Gamification Elements of that Aid Learning 1. Challenge 2. Mystery 3. Avatars 4. Stories & Challenges 5. Levels 6. Feedback 7. Freedom to Fail
  34. 34. What can you do? Intelligently add game elements to instruction, create a “drip” approach to instruction.
  35. 35. In a Meta-Analysis… Games are more effective for learning than lectures. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  36. 36. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Over Traditional Training 17% Higher than Lectures 5% Higher than Discussion Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  37. 37. Fact Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies. Review of 39 studies 54% conducted in the last year.
  38. 38. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies It wasn’t the game, it was level of activity in the game. In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to learning.
  39. 39. What can you do? Focus on interactivity within the learning, force the learner interact with the content.
  40. 40. MOOCs (Massively Open Online Courses) have attrition rates as high as 90%. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  41. 41. The absence of instructional design is often cited as a reason for the huge attrition rate that has been observed. The problem-- Faculty are presented much as they appear in a classroom, with no interactivity or visuals.
  42. 42. What can you do? Apply instructional design strategies to courses…interactivity, mystery, cliff hangers…Avoid Death by Lecture.
  43. 43. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  44. 44. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . 20% higher confidence levels.
  45. 45. What can you do? Simulate what the learner actually has to do on the job.
  46. 46. An on-screen character is distracting to the learner. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  47. 47. On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character. Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
  48. 48. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later? A. Person who watched an avatar that did not look like them running B. Person who watched an avatar that looked like them running C. Person watching an avatar that looked like them loitering /hanging out
  49. 49. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering . Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  50. 50. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 95-113.
  51. 51. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited. Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
  52. 52. http://www.codebaby.com/showcase/elearning-showcase/
  53. 53. http://codebaby.com/elearning‐solutions/examples/
  54. 54. What can you do? Use characters in your learning design.
  55. 55. Learners remember facts better… When presented as bulleted list rather than presented as a story. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  56. 56. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent. g Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
  57. 57. 1. Characters Story Elements 5. Conclusion 2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution
  58. 58. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  59. 59. Think Radio talk- show, not lecture
  60. 60. Create a learning “reality” show.
  61. 61. What can you do? Use stories. Provide the context for the learning. Think NPR instead of “lecture.”
  62. 62. Graphic Novels and eBooks should not be used for “Serious Training.” Is that Fact or Fishy?
  63. 63. http://www.worldwarfighter.com/hajikamal/activity/
  64. 64. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=WOQhduHFp2I
  65. 65. What can you do? Create a graphic novel for learning. Introduce a subject, reinforce learning.
  66. 66. Games can influence people to behave in a positive manner. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  67. 67. Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211-221. Fact
  68. 68. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  69. 69. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  70. 70. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  71. 71. 22% intervened
  72. 72. 56% intervened
  73. 73. What can you do? Create a game to influence learners to interact favorably with your content.
  74. 74. One way to engage learners is to… Present them with a difficult challenge. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  75. 75. Fact. Provide a challenge Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
  76. 76. Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
  77. 77. Investigatory Training • Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model
  78. 78. It is your first day on the job as an investigator and Jane, an employee in Accounting, just accused her boss of embezzling $10,000. What is the first thing you should do?
  79. 79. For software training think “Koboshyi Maru”
  80. 80. What can you do? Give your learners the “Koboshyi Maru.”
  81. 81. Let’s look at an example idea…
  82. 82. Choose Your Mentor Mary, a stay at home Mom with two kids. Rick a retired military officer. Dashanna,recently graduated from 2 year college Louis a retired teacher.
  83. 83. Demonstration of Technique with Teaching Content
  84. 84. Hi, my name is Mary and I want to explain to you how I take calls. Watch me as I answer a customer inquiry.
  85. 85. Did you hear what I did when the customer started getting upset? I follow our CUSTOMER FIRST rules. One of the steps is to empathize with the customer. Notice how I mentioned that I too would be frustrated in a similar situation. That is because….
  86. 86. Let’s Review our CUSTOMER FIRST rules. The first rule is ….. This rule is in place to allow the customer to.. Keep in mind the following; • First • Second • Third
  87. 87. Guided Walk Through of Process with Content Tips
  88. 88. Now, you try. I’ll guide you through the process as you take the call. You’ll only hear audio from the client because that’s how it is on an actual call.
  89. 89. Oops, you forgot to insert a key piece of information. This information is needed if you are going to remove a feature from a customer’ plan. Why don’t you try it again.
  90. 90. On Your Own
  91. 91. 3:49 MinHello, yeah, I have a major problem with my service and I am frustrated.
  92. 92. Your Turn….
  93. 93. Activity: Interactive Learning Design Your Task • Create an interactive learning activity before lunch. The Process  • Team up with others (How many? ) • Pick a topic  • Decide on an approach (story, game, radio show, etc.) • Determine a theme and a learning goal. • Decide what the instruction will look like • Create a prototype, defining the interactivity as you go! • Playtest in your group.  You will then playtest your interactive learning design with  another group!
  94. 94. Build your own story. • Learning Objective • Challenge • Feedback • Characters (create profile and traits) • Activities
  95. 95. Game Design Create a Learning Game. • Learning Objective • Challenge • Rules • How to Play
  96. 96. Covert Takeaways • Learning should be engaging. • Stories provide a context for learning. • It is ok for a learner to struggle. • Bulleted lists should be avoided.  • Add multiple levels to your online instruction.  • Simply adding points, badges and leaderboards does  not make learning effective. 

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