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 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
 Antennas wave and propagation
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Antennas wave and propagation

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  • 1. Antennas and Propagation Key points
  • 2. 2 Introduction  An antenna is a transducer that converts radio frequency electric current to electromagnetic waves that are radiated into space  In two-way communication, the same antenna can be used for transmission and reception
  • 3. 3 Fundamental Antenna Concepts  Reciprocity  Radiation Patterns  Isotropic Radiator  Gain  Polarization
  • 4. 4 Reciprocity  In general, the various properties of an antenna apply equally regardless of whether it is used for transmitting or receiving  Transmission/reception efficiency  Gain  Current and voltage distribution  Impedance
  • 5. 5 Radiation Patterns  Radiation pattern  Graphical representation of radiation properties of an antenna  Depicted as a two-dimensional cross section  Reception pattern  Receiving antenna’s equivalent to radiation pattern
  • 6. 6 Radiation Patterns (cont.)  Beam width (or half-power beam width)  Measure of directivity of antenna
  • 7. 7 Antenna Gain  Antenna gain  Power output, in a particular direction, compared to that produced in any direction by an isotropic antenna  Effective area  Related to physical size and shape of the antenna
  • 8. 8 Antenna Gain (cont.)  Relationship between antenna gain and effective area  G  antenna gain  Ae  effective area  f  carrier frequency  c  speed of light (≈ 3 x 108 m/s)  λ  carrier wavelength
  • 9. 9 Antenna Gain (cont.)  An antenna with a G = 3dB improves over the isotropic antenna in that direction by 3dB or a factor of 2
  • 10. 10 Polarization  Defined as the orientation of the electric field (E-plane) of an electromagnetic wave  Types of polarization  Linear  Horizontal  Vertical  Circular
  • 11. 11 Polarization  Vertically Polarized Antenna  Electric field is perpendicular to the Earth’s surface  e.g., Broadcast tower for AM radio, “whip” antenna on an automobile  Horizontally Polarized Antenna  Electric field is parallel to the Earth’s surface  e.g., Television transmission (U.S.)  Circular Polarized Antenna  Wave radiates energy in both the horizontal and vertical planes and all planes in between
  • 12. 12 Polarization
  • 13. 13 Types of Antennas  Isotropic antenna  Idealized  Radiates power equally in all directions  Omnidirectional  Dipole antennas  Half-wave dipole antenna  Hertz antenna  Quarter-wave vertical antenna  Marconi antenna  Parabolic Reflective Antenna
  • 14. 14 Dipole Antenna http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/antenna_patterns.htm Power radiated Azimuth
  • 15. 15 Propagation Modes  Ground-wave propagation  Sky-wave propagation  Line-of-sight propagation
  • 16. 16 Ground Wave Propagation  Follows contour of the earth  Can propagate considerable distances  Frequencies up to 2 MHz  Example  AM radio
  • 17. 17 Sky Wave Propagation  Signal reflected from ionized layer of atmosphere back down to earth  Signal can travel a number of hops, back and forth between ionosphere and earth’s surface  Reflection effect caused by refraction  Examples  Amateur radio  CB radio
  • 18. 18 Line-of-Sight Propagation  Transmitting and receiving antennas must be within line of sight  Refraction  Bending of microwaves by the atmosphere  Velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of the density of the medium  When wave changes medium, speed changes  Wave bends at the boundary between mediums
  • 19. 19 Line-of-Sight Equations  Optical line of sight  Effective (or radio) line of sight  d = distance between antenna and horizon (km)  h = antenna height (m)  K = adjustment factor to account for refraction, rule of thumb K = 4/3 hd 57.3= hd Κ= 57.3
  • 20. 20 Line-of-Sight Equations  Maximum distance between two antennas for LOS propagation:  h1 = height of antenna one  h2 = height of antenna two ( )21max 57.3 hhd Κ+Κ=
  • 21. 21 LOS Wireless Transmission Impairments  Attenuation and attenuation distortion  Free space loss  Noise  Atmospheric absorption  Multipath  Refraction  Thermal noise
  • 22. 22 Attenuation  Strength of signal falls off with distance over transmission medium  Attenuation factors for unguided media:  Received signal must have sufficient strength so that circuitry in the receiver can interpret the signal  Signal must maintain a level sufficiently higher than noise to be received without error  Attenuation is greater at higher frequencies, causing distortion
  • 23. 23 Free Space Loss  Free space loss  Ideal isotropic antenna  Pt = signal power at transmitting antenna  Pr = signal power at receiving antenna  λ = carrier wavelength  d = propagation distance between antennas  c = speed of light (≈ 3 x 108 m/s) where d and λ are in the same units (e.g., meters)
  • 24. 24 Free Space Loss
  • 25. 25 Free Space Loss  Free space loss accounting for gain of other antennas  Gt = gain of transmitting antenna  Gr = gain of receiving antenna  At = effective area of transmitting antenna  Ar = effective area of receiving antenna
  • 26. 26 Categories of Noise  Thermal Noise  Intermodulation noise  Crosstalk  Impulse Noise
  • 27. 27 Thermal Noise  Thermal noise due to agitation of electrons  Present in all electronic devices and transmission media  Cannot be eliminated  Function of temperature  Particularly significant for satellite communication
  • 28. 28 Thermal Noise  Amount of thermal noise to be found in a bandwidth of 1Hz in any device or conductor is:  N0 = noise power density in watts per 1 Hz of bandwidth  k = Boltzmann's constant = 1.3803 × 10-23 J/o K  T = temperature, in kelvins (absolute temperature) ( )W/Hzk0 TN =
  • 29. 29 Thermal Noise  Noise is assumed to be independent of frequency  Thermal noise present in a bandwidth of B Hertz (in watts):  or, in decibel-watts TBN k= BTN log10log10klog10 ++= BT log10log10dBW6.228 ++−=
  • 30. 30 Noise Terminology  Intermodulation noise  Occurs if signals with different frequencies share the same medium  Crosstalk  Unwanted coupling between signal paths http://www.cabletesting.comhttp://www.cabletesting.com
  • 31. 31 Noise Terminology  Impulse noise  Irregular pulses or noise spikes  Short duration and of relatively high amplitude  Caused by external electromagnetic disturbances, or faults and flaws in the communications system
  • 32. 32 Other Impairments  Atmospheric absorption  Water vapor and oxygen contribute to attenuation  Multipath  Obstacles reflect signals so that multiple copies with varying delays are received  Refraction  Bending of radio waves as they propagate through the atmosphere
  • 33. 33 Fading in Mobile Environment  Fading  Time variation of received signal power caused by changes in transmission medium or path(s)
  • 34. 34 Multipath Propagation (MP)  Reflection  Occurs when signal encounters a surface that is large relative to the wavelength of the signal  Diffraction  Occurs at the edge of an impenetrable body that is large compared to wavelength of radio wave  Scattering  Occurs when incoming signal hits an object whose size is in the order of the wavelength of the signal or less
  • 35. 35 The Effects of MP Propagation  Multiple copies of a signal may arrive at different phases  If phases add destructively, the signal level relative to noise declines, making detection more difficult  Known as Intersymbol Interference (ISI)
  • 36. 36 Types of Fading  Fast fading  Slow fading  Flat fading  Selective fading  Rayleigh fading  Rician fading
  • 37. 37 Fading Source: Prakash Agrawal, D., Zeng, Q., “Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems,” Brooks/Cole-Thompson Learning, 2003 .

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