Varieties of English _____________________________ Lexical Analysis - Diego Ulloa Iglesias -
Types of Variation Field of Discourse Relatedtothelanguageuser Medium Attitude Region Social Group Relatedtothelanguage use
Types of Variation 1.- Regional Variation Relatedtothe concept “Dialect”, whichisdefined as a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists. ↘ There are more dialects in long-settledBritainthan in areas more recentlysettledbyEnglishspeakers(eg., North Americans/New York).
Types of Variation 2.- Social Variation Referedtoaspectssuch as: education, socioeconomicgroupand ethnicgroup. ↘ Itfocuses more oneducated and uneducatedspeechusedbythe speaker/writer, eg., theprominentexample of doublenegative: “I don’twantnothing” // “I don’twantanything”
Types of Variation 2.1.- Standard English Itreferstouniformity, whatiscommontoall. Degree of acceptance of thelanguage.
Types of Variation 2.2.1.- NationalStandars of English: British (BrE) and American (AmE) English. ↘ Twoover-whelminglypredominantnationalstandards. ↘ Fewgrammaticaldifferences. * BrE : “Thegovernment (isOR are) in favour of economicsanctions. * AmE : “ThegovernmentIS in favour of economicsanctions. ↘ Lexical differences are more numerous. * BrE : Biscuit * AmE : Cookie Any of various small flat sweet cakes
Types of Variation 2.2.2.- NationalStandards of English: OtherNationalStandards. Scots Hibero-English Canadian English South Africa New Zealand Australia
Types of Variation 2.2.3.- Pronunciation and Standard English RP ReceivedPronunciation ↘ Nonregionalpronunciationwhich has prestige, associatedwitholderschools and universities of England.
Types of Variation 3.- Varietiesaccordingtofield of discourse A speaker has repertoire of varietiesaccordingtofield and switchestotheappropateone as occasiondemands. law meeting interview football cookery
Types of Variation 4.- Varietiesaccordingtomedium WrittenFormV/S SpokenForm Somerecourses are oftenlimitedtodemonstratewhatwereallywanttosayorwrite.
Types of Variation 4.- Varietiesaccordingtoattitude Choicethatdependsonourattitudetothe: Hearer / Reader Topic Purpose of Communication Formal – Neutral – Informal