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Varieties of english

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    Varieties of english Varieties of english Presentation Transcript

    • Varieties of English
      _____________________________
      Lexical Analysis
      - Diego Ulloa Iglesias -
    • Types of Variation
      Field of Discourse
      Relatedtothelanguageuser
      Medium
      Attitude
      Region
      Social Group
      Relatedtothelanguage use
    • Types of Variation
      1.- Regional Variation
      Relatedtothe concept “Dialect”, whichisdefined as a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists.
      ↘ There are more dialects in long-settledBritainthan in areas more recentlysettledbyEnglishspeakers(eg., North Americans/New York).
    • Types of Variation
      2.- Social Variation
      Referedtoaspectssuch as: education, socioeconomicgroupand ethnicgroup.
      ↘ Itfocuses more oneducated and uneducatedspeechusedbythe speaker/writer, eg., theprominentexample of doublenegative:
      “I don’twantnothing” // “I don’twantanything”
    • Types of Variation
      2.1.- Standard English
      Itreferstouniformity, whatiscommontoall.
      Degree of acceptance of thelanguage.
    • Types of Variation
      2.2.1.- NationalStandars of English: British (BrE) and American (AmE) English.
      ↘ Twoover-whelminglypredominantnationalstandards.
      ↘ Fewgrammaticaldifferences.
      * BrE : “Thegovernment (isOR are) in favour of economicsanctions.
      * AmE : “ThegovernmentIS in favour of economicsanctions.
      ↘ Lexical differences are more numerous.
      * BrE : Biscuit
      * AmE : Cookie
      Any of various small flat sweet cakes
    • Types of Variation
      2.2.2.- NationalStandards of English: OtherNationalStandards.
      Scots
      Hibero-English
      Canadian English
      South Africa
      New Zealand
      Australia
    • Types of Variation
      2.2.3.- Pronunciation and Standard English
      RP
      ReceivedPronunciation
      ↘ Nonregionalpronunciationwhich has prestige, associatedwitholderschools and universities of England.
    • Types of Variation
      3.- Varietiesaccordingtofield of discourse
      A speaker has repertoire of varietiesaccordingtofield and switchestotheappropateone as occasiondemands.
      law
      meeting
      interview
      football
      cookery
    • Types of Variation
      4.- Varietiesaccordingtomedium
      WrittenFormV/S SpokenForm
      Somerecourses are oftenlimitedtodemonstratewhatwereallywanttosayorwrite.
    • Types of Variation
      4.- Varietiesaccordingtoattitude
      Choicethatdependsonourattitudetothe:
      Hearer / Reader
      Topic
      Purpose of Communication
      Formal – Neutral – Informal