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  • 1. Varieties of English
    _____________________________
    Lexical Analysis
    - Diego Ulloa Iglesias -
  • 2. Types of Variation
    Field of Discourse
    Relatedtothelanguageuser
    Medium
    Attitude
    Region
    Social Group
    Relatedtothelanguage use
  • 3. Types of Variation
    1.- Regional Variation
    Relatedtothe concept “Dialect”, whichisdefined as a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists.
    ↘ There are more dialects in long-settledBritainthan in areas more recentlysettledbyEnglishspeakers(eg., North Americans/New York).
  • 4. Types of Variation
    2.- Social Variation
    Referedtoaspectssuch as: education, socioeconomicgroupand ethnicgroup.
    ↘ Itfocuses more oneducated and uneducatedspeechusedbythe speaker/writer, eg., theprominentexample of doublenegative:
    “I don’twantnothing” // “I don’twantanything”
  • 5. Types of Variation
    2.1.- Standard English
    Itreferstouniformity, whatiscommontoall.
    Degree of acceptance of thelanguage.
  • 6. Types of Variation
    2.2.1.- NationalStandars of English: British (BrE) and American (AmE) English.
    ↘ Twoover-whelminglypredominantnationalstandards.
    ↘ Fewgrammaticaldifferences.
    * BrE : “Thegovernment (isOR are) in favour of economicsanctions.
    * AmE : “ThegovernmentIS in favour of economicsanctions.
    ↘ Lexical differences are more numerous.
    * BrE : Biscuit
    * AmE : Cookie
    Any of various small flat sweet cakes
  • 7. Types of Variation
    2.2.2.- NationalStandards of English: OtherNationalStandards.
    Scots
    Hibero-English
    Canadian English
    South Africa
    New Zealand
    Australia
  • 8. Types of Variation
    2.2.3.- Pronunciation and Standard English
    RP
    ReceivedPronunciation
    ↘ Nonregionalpronunciationwhich has prestige, associatedwitholderschools and universities of England.
  • 9. Types of Variation
    3.- Varietiesaccordingtofield of discourse
    A speaker has repertoire of varietiesaccordingtofield and switchestotheappropateone as occasiondemands.
    law
    meeting
    interview
    football
    cookery
  • 10. Types of Variation
    4.- Varietiesaccordingtomedium
    WrittenFormV/S SpokenForm
    Somerecourses are oftenlimitedtodemonstratewhatwereallywanttosayorwrite.
  • 11. Types of Variation
    4.- Varietiesaccordingtoattitude
    Choicethatdependsonourattitudetothe:
    Hearer / Reader
    Topic
    Purpose of Communication
    Formal – Neutral – Informal