South Asian Englishes


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South Asian Englishes

  1. 1. presentation Globalization   Topic: South Asian Englishes By Maria Raja
  2. 2. Globalization  South Asian Englishes  Background  History  Status of English  Features
  3. 3. Introduction The label ‘South Asian English’ is a cover term for English in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. South Asian English is oftenly represented as ”SAE”. It belonges to the outer circle of language. (Kachru, models of spreed of English)
  4. 4. Introduction The Outer Circle of English was produced by the second diaspora  of English, which spread the language through imperial expansion by Great Britain  in Asia. In these regions, English is not the native tongue, but serves as a useful lingua franca. It is the language of constitution, Education, legal officials and media. This circle includes India ,  Nigeria , Bangladesh , Pakistan ,  Malaysia etc. The total number of English speakers in the outer circle is estimated to range from 150 million to 300 million.
  5. 5. Historical Background The spread of English in South Asia The spread of English in South Asian be traced back to these main  factors: 1. The activity of Christian missionaries. 2. The British colonization over sub continent and Asia. 3.  English the medium of education. 4. Globalization and Language of science and technology
  6. 6. Status Of English In much of Asia, English is no longer a colonial import. Throughout the region, English is the language of education, culture, business and, above all, regional cooperation. English-speaking Asians claim English as their own language. Filipino poet Gemino Abad once said, "The English language is now ours. We have colonized it, too."
  7. 7. Status of English Multiculturalism of English as an Asian Language Asian varieties of English are diverse, however, with different social roles attached to the adopted language. Each country has used the language in its traditional cultural andlinguistic contexts, thereby producing a distinct variety characterized by unique structural and functional features. Proficiency levels also differ with "English as a second language" (ESL) And ”English as a foreign language” (EFL)
  8. 8. Status of English As most Asian countries recognize English as a useful language for intranational orinternational communication, they are increasingly committed to strengthening and improving English language teaching. It is also important to note that teachers do not teach local varieties of English in the school. They teach "Standard British English" in the classroom in Singapore and Malaysia. But if people are compelled or expected to speak English, it is natural that they should do so only in the way best fit for them.
  9. 9. Norm about English Represents even more power! Those  who  don’t  control  English,  don’t  have  power. Many  small  groups  now  demanding  English  medium, in order to get more power! State  educational  systems    trying  to  impose  use  of  English  language  as  medium  of  communication. 
  10. 10. Status Of English 1. in the Outer Circle, English is essentially learnt in order to communicate with the native speakers of English; 2.English is learnt to understand and teach British and American cultural values; 3.the varieties of English used in the Outer Circle are ‘interlanguages’ and the goal of acquisition is to acquire ‘native-like’ competence;
  11. 11. Features Your neighbors have blamed you for "eating their head."  Your colleague is looking for a "convented, homely girl."  Your friend wants you to come to his "passing out"  ceremony.  "eating their head." "convented, homely girl." “passing out". What are the meaning of these words?
  12. 12. Features It tells you that "eating their head" means you  annoyed your neighbours by asking too many  questions.  "convented, homely girl." means that your colleague  is looking for a young woman educated at a girls­ only Catholic school who enjoys housework.  "passing out" means hat your friend wants you at his  graduation ceremony.
  13. 13. Grammatical Features reduplication is common as a means of emphasis: reduplication is common as a means  ''I bought some small small things.” (see B. Kachru 1982a: 361.) Another feature is the use of yes, no and isn’t as general question tags, e.g. You are going tomorrow, isn’t? He isn’t going there, isn’t it? (B. Kachru 1986a: 40; 1994a: 520).
  14. 14. Phonological Features Because  of  the  lack  of  initial  fricative  series  in  many  languages,  initial  /f  /  can  be  replaced  by  /p  h  /,  with  Pashto speakers for instance, so that fool becomes  [p h u l].  [Th]ree as [t]ree. [ pet ]→[ bet ], [ ted ]→[ded ], [ kout ]→[gout ]. /w/ to /v/ and vice versa (as in /ven/ for ‘when’  and /waIp?r/ for ‘viper’).
  15. 15. Vocabulary Borrowings and loan-translations from other languages are very common e.g Masala (spices) and Jungle (Forest) Other words probably derive from morphological processes being  applied  to  words  which  are  not  found  in  British  English,  e.g.  unemployee from employee,  English­knowing ‘with a knowledge  of English’. Lexical  extensions  also  occur,  e.g.  batch  ‘group’.also  batch­mate  ‘fellow student’ 
  16. 16. vocabulary Compounds: Joing of two different words for a new expression. mixy-grinder (food blender), Eve-teaser (someone who harasses women), newspaper wallah (newspaper seller), Load sheeding (loss of electricity), over- clever ‘too smart’.
  17. 17. Conclusion  There are several dimensions to South Asian English: historical, linguistic, sociolinguistic, attitudinal, ideological, educational and cultural. Its is the world wide variety of English and it should be promoted as well.