Standard english (slide)


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Standard english (slide)

  1. 1. Standard EnglishStandard English Marcos Antonio Francisca Damasceno Romário
  2. 2. Standard English (often shortened to S.E. within linguistic circles) refers to whatever form of the English language is accepted as a national norm in an Anglophone country. It encompasses grammar, vocabulary, and spelling. In the British Isles, particularly in England and Wales, it is often associated with: the "Received Pronunciation" accent (there are several variants of the accent) and UKSE (United Kingdom Standard English), which refers to grammar and vocabulary. In the United States it is generally associated with the "General American" accent, and in Australia with General Australian. Unlike the case of other standard languages, however, there is no official or central regulating body defining S.E Standard English is recognized as not being a class or regional dialect. It is an educated form of English used for official purposes such as administration, education and information. It has its own specific grammar and vocabulary. We distinguish the British standard (R.P) and the American standard or (G.A). There are differences between these two standards mainly in the field of lexis (vocabulary) and to a limited extent also in grammar and spelling.
  3. 3. Standard EnglishStandard English
  4. 4. British and American English differencesBritish and American English differences • Unlike what happened to the Portuguese, which over 4 centuries developed into two substantially different dialects in Portugal and in Brazil, the differences between the American and British dialects are not that significant. The main difference between the British and American English is when it comes to pronunciation. We can also find some differences in vocabulary, and minor differences in grammar and spelling. It is difficult, however, to reach definitive conclusions about the differences because the issue is more complex than it seems. The classification itself "American" and "British" is inexact. Considering that within each one of them we can identify dialects with differences almost as sharp as those observed among themselves. That means, we would have to conceptualize British and American English more precisely, which certainly would exclude other dialects, and which, in turn, would threaten the legitimacy of such a study. One should also consider that the more formal the style of the language and the more international the topic is, the greater the similarity between the British and American English.
  5. 5. British and AmericanBritish and American PronuciationPronuciation DifferencesDifferences • In British English, many vowels have different sounds and are usually not nasalized. - down, sound, found • In british English the “a” sound is pronounced at the back of the mouth. While in America English it's pronounced at the front of the mouth. - class, grass, can’t, fast, ask • Stressed vowels are usually longer in American English. In packet, for example, the "a" is longer. • In British English the /r/ sound is pronounced only before a vowel (Ex. red, real, bedroom). In all other cases the /r/ is silent, sounding more similar to the sound "ah" - word, heart, car, over • In American English the /r/ sound is always pronounced wherever it appears in a word.
  6. 6. . In American English the "t" between vowels is pronounced as a soft "d" (/d/), so that writer and rider have similar sound. British English speakers usually pronounce the "t" as /t/. - matter, better, fatter • In british English the “o” sound is pronounced by rounding lips - pot, hot, knot, god • The “aw” sound - walk, talk, awkward
  7. 7. British and AmericanBritish and American vocabularyvocabulary differencesdifferences American English Antenna Apartment Apartment building Bathroom Busy (phone line) Cafeteria Candy cookie Cotton candy crosswalk First floor British English Aerial Flat Block of flats Toilet Engaged Cantee Sweets Biscuit Candy floss Zebra crossing Ground floor
  8. 8. American Fries Game (sports) Gas Kerosene Laundromat Motor home Movie theater Pants Parking lot To rent sidewalk British Chips Match Petrol Paraffin Luandrette Caravan Cinema Trousers Car park To hire Pavement
  9. 9. British and AmericanBritish and American spellingspelling DifferencesDifferences U.K -our (honour, flavour) -re (centre, metre) -ogue (dialogue, catalogue) -ce (defence, licence) -ise (apologise, realise) -yse (analyse, catalyse) U.E -or (honor, flavor) -er (center, meter) -og (dialog, catalog) -se (defense, license) -ize (apologize, realize) -yze (analyze, catalyze)
  10. 10. British and AmericanBritish and American GrammarGrammar DifferencesDifferences • In sentences which talk about an action in the past that has anIn sentences which talk about an action in the past that has an effect in the present:effect in the present: - Jenny feels ill. She ate too much. - Jenny feels ill. She's eaten too much. - I can't find my keys. Did you see them anywhere? - I can't find my keys. Have you seen them anywhere? • In sentences which contain the words already, just or yet:In sentences which contain the words already, just or yet: - Are they going to the show tonight? - No. They already saw it. - Are they going to the show tonight? - No. They've already seen it. - Is Samantha here? - No, she just left. - Is Samantha here? - No, she has just left
  11. 11. • In British English needn't is often used instead of don't needIn British English needn't is often used instead of don't need toto - You needn’t go to school today - You don’t need to go to school today - Need you go to school today? - Yes, I need / No, I needn’t - Do you need to go to school today? - Yes, I do / No, I don’t • Talknig about possessionTalknig about possession - Have you got a big house? - Yes, I have / No, I haven’t - Do you have a big house - Yes, I do / No, I don’t
  12. 12. Which is better? • An important point to make is that different doesn’t mean wrong. Comments such as “American English is inferior to British English”, or “American English is better than British English” have no solid basis other than the speaker’s opinion. The truth is that no language or regional variety of language is naturally better or worse than another. They are just different. Students will often have very firm beliefs on which English they think is better/easier to understand/clearer etc. While it may be true for that particular individual, there is no evidence to suggest that one variety is easier to learn or understand than the other and there are no scientific criteria to validate the superiority of one variety over another.
  13. 13. World Englishes World Englishes refers to the emergence of localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in nations colonized by Great Britain or influenced by the United States. World Englishes consist of varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally, and how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function influence the use of colonial English in different regions of the world. The issue of World Englishes was first raised in 1978 to examine concepts of regional Englishes globally. Pragmatic factors such as appropriateness, comprehensibility and interpretability justified the use of English as an international and intra-national language. In 1988, at a Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) conference in Honolulu, Hawaii, the International Committee of the Study of World Englishes (ICWE) was formed.[In 1992, the ICWE formally launched the International Association for World Englishes (IAWE) at a conference of "World Englishes Today", at the University of Illinois, USA.
  14. 14. Currently, there are approximately 75 territories where English is spoken either as a first language (L1) or as an unofficial or institutionalized second language (L2) in fields such as government, law and education. It is difficult to establish the total number of Englishes in the world, as new varieties of English are constantly being developed and discovered.
  15. 15. Global spread of EnglishGlobal spread of English • The First dispersal: English is transported to the ‘new world’The First dispersal: English is transported to the ‘new world’ The first diaspora involved relatively large-scale migrations of around 25,000 mother-tongue English speakers from England, Scotland and Ireland predominantly to North America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Over time, their own English dialects developed into modern American, South African and Australasia Englishes. In contrast to the English of Great Britain, the varieties spoken in modern North America, South Africa and Australasia have been modified in response to the changed and changing sociolinguistic contexts of the migrants, for example being in contact with indigenous Indian, Khoisan, Aboriginal or Maori populations in the colonies.
  16. 16. • The Second dispersal: English is transported to Asia and Africa:The Second dispersal: English is transported to Asia and Africa: The second diaspora was the result of the colonisation of Asia and Africa, which led to the development of ‘New Englishes’, the second-language varieties of English. In colonial Africa, the history of English is distinct between West and East Africa. English in West Africa began due to the slave trade. English soon gained official status in Gambia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon, and some of the pidgin and creoles which developed from English contact, including Krio (Sierra Leone) and Cameroon Pidgin, have large numbers of speakers now. As for East Africa, extensive British settlements were established in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, where English became a crucial language of the government, education and the law. From the early 1960s, the six countries achieved independence in succession; but English remained the official language and had large numbers of second language speakers in Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi (along with Chewa).
  17. 17. English was formally introduced to the sub-continent of South Asia (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan) during the second half of the eighteenth century. In India, English was given status through the implementation of Macaulay ‘Minute’ of 1835, which proposed the introduction of an English educational system in India. Over time, the process of ‘Indianisation’ led to the development of a distinctive national character of English in India. British influence in South-East Asia and the South Pacific began in the late eighteenth century, involving primarily the territories of Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong. Papua New Guinea, also a British protectorate, exemplified the English-based pidgin - Tok Pisin. Nowadays, English is also learnt in other countries in neighbouring areas, most notably in Taiwan, Japan and Korea, with the latter two having begun to consider the possibility of making English their official second language.
  18. 18. Classification of Englishes • The spread of English around the world is often discussed in terms of three distinct groups of users, where English is used respectively as: • a native language (ENL); the primary language of the majority population of a country, such as in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. • a second language (ESL); an additional language for intranational as well as international communication in communities that are multilingual, such as in India, Nigeria, and Singapore. • A foreign language (EFL); used almost exclusively for international communication, such as in Japan and Germany.
  19. 19. Kachru's Three Circles of English