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  1. 1. Language Variation Camila Navarro Universidad de Santiago de Chile Facultad de Humanidades Departamento de Lingüística y Literatura Paradigmas Lingüísticos
  2. 2. Language Styles and Dialects.
  3. 3. Dialect <ul><li>A distinct form of a language </li></ul><ul><li>Regional dialect </li></ul><ul><li>Social dialect </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic dialect </li></ul><ul><li>Dialects are never purely regional, social or ethnic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Example: anymore <ul><li>For some english speakers anymore stands for nowadays or lately. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools are expensive anymore </li></ul><ul><li>And for others anymore can be use only if there is a negative element, such as not. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools are not cheap anymore </li></ul>
  5. 5. Idiolect <ul><li>Is the language spoken by a single individual. A person’s language is one of the most fundamental features os self-identity </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>‘ There is no such thing as a single English language; rather, there are many English languages (dialects and idiolects) depending on who is using the language and what the context of use is’ Akmajan A, (2006; 288) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mutual intelligibility <ul><li>Even though native speakers of English vary in their use of the language, their languages are similar in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary to permit mutual intelligibility i.e they can understand each other. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g Papago and Pima: two Native American Languages. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dialects and the Interplay of Regional and Social Factors: <ul><li>Research by William Labov (1972). </li></ul><ul><li>About social prestige on a regional dialect </li></ul><ul><li>/r/ in NYC speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed salespeople at 3 stores: Saks Fifth Avenue (high prestige), Macy’s (middle), S. Klein (low prestige) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Excuse me, where are the women’s shoes?. “Fourth floor”. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hypercorrection <ul><li>Involves imitating what is thought to be prestige language. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g NYC speakers insert /r/ in words where it does not actually occur in spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Saw [sɔr], Cuba [kyuwbr] </li></ul><ul><li>Drop out /r/ in some words and positions and will insert /r/ in others. </li></ul>
  10. 10. “ Standard” versus “Nonstandard” Language. <ul><li>Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Used in news programs, language of legal goverment and in the schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Social attitude, language prejudice. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonstandard: Black English. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Black English and the Ver Be <ul><li>Example of nonstandard. </li></ul><ul><li>Used by Black residents of low-income ghettos in large urban areas of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Present tense form of the verb to be is often dropped in casual speech. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples They not caught They’re not caught We on tape We’re on tape She the first one started us off She’s the first one started us off Black English Standard
  13. 13. Invariant be <ul><li>Indicates a habitual and repeatable action, state, or event. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical feature unique to BE. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g </li></ul><ul><li>I get a ball and then some children be on one team and some be on another team. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, there always be fights. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Formal and Informal Language Styles. <ul><li>Formal: in social conexts that are, serious, formal, in which speakers feel they must watch their language. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal: casual, relaxed social settings in which speech is spontaneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Both follow sets of precise rules. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Some rules of the grammar of informal style in english.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Greater amount of abbreviation, shortening, contraction and deletion. </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliaries Do, Have and Be </li></ul><ul><li>This dialect is in no way defective or ilogical, since it follows rules as Standard English does. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Where phonology, morphology, syntax and pragmatic conext meet. <ul><li>e.g Deletion </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on the phonological process of contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Only contractable verbs can be deleted, (morphology). </li></ul><ul><li>It concerns the way sentences are formed in the abreviated style, (syntax). </li></ul><ul><li>Context in which the abbreviated sentences are actually use. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Other Language Varieties
  19. 20. Lingua Francas, Pidgins and Creoles. <ul><li>Lingua Franca </li></ul><ul><li>Given language known to all the participan, it is selected by common agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Pidgin </li></ul><ul><li>No native Speakers, use as medium of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on linguistic features of one or more languages. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Hawaiian Pidgin English, Bickerton (1981) <ul><li>English vocabulary + syntax of the native language of the individual user. </li></ul><ul><li>a. da pua pipl awl poteito it </li></ul><ul><li>The poor people ate only potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>b. wok had dis pipl </li></ul><ul><li>These people work hard </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Under certain circumstances, children may learn a pidgin as their first language ---> Creole. </li></ul><ul><li>When a pidgin becomes creolized it undergoes expansion of its vocabulary and grammar and begins to acquire complex rules. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Cape York Peninsula in Australia. Crowly and Rigsby (1979) <ul><li>Im bin ran </li></ul><ul><li>He ran (bin used to mark past) </li></ul><ul><li>Im go ran </li></ul><ul><li>He will run (go used to mark future) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Jargon, secret languages and “Mother-in-Law” Language Varieties. <ul><li>Jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Special vocabulary use by special-interest groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Secret languages </li></ul><ul><li>Part of initiation rituals. Warlpiri, central Australia.Upside-Down language. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g that one is small --> I am short. </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-in-law language </li></ul><ul><li>In presence of certain relatives. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Language and Sex Roles: Male and Female Speech. <ul><li>Koasati, native american language. Hass (1944). </li></ul>He is eating it Í:ps Í:p He is lifting it lakáws lakáw Men’s form Women’s form
  25. 26. <ul><li>Sexism in language </li></ul><ul><li>If anyone needs a book, he can get one here. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowdays this situation has change, using both pronouns or they instead. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Slang and Taboo Language <ul><li>Slang </li></ul><ul><li>Part of casual, informal styles of language use. </li></ul><ul><li>It changes quite rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with a particualr social group. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Taboo language. </li></ul><ul><li>Words that are avoid entirely, or in polite company. Determined by culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Related to swears words. </li></ul><ul><li>Damn --> darn </li></ul><ul><li>Hell --> heck </li></ul><ul><li>And also to death </li></ul><ul><li>To pass away, to kick the bucket </li></ul>
  28. 29. Code-switching and Borrowing <ul><li>Code-switching </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of distintic language varieties. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g </li></ul><ul><li>We must not permit the State of California to deplete the water supply of the State of Arizona. Ain’t no way we’re gonna give em that water. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>It’s now ocho y media on a Saturday night and we’re gonna hear a new artist con his new group. You’re in tune with la máquina rítmica. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual or multilingual areas. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Borrowing </li></ul><ul><li>e.g </li></ul><ul><li>Está leak iando ---> It’s leaking </li></ul><ul><li>Borrow words form another language. </li></ul>