Varieties of English


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Varieties of English

  1. 1. Varieties of English Gabriel Fernando Jara Muñoz CHAPTER 1 SECTION 2
  2. 2. <ul><li>Types of variation </li></ul>depends on the USE and the USER of the languages REGION SOCIAL GROUP FIELD OF DISCOURSE MEDIUM ATTITUDE user where people live with whom people relate changeable change of region change of social group use situation purpose activities spoken/ written participants relationship relate to the relate to the it can be if there is either a or according to relate to
  3. 3. Regional Varieties DIEALECTS A variety of a language used by a certain group of people, usually Because of regional differences. English Variation 2 English Variation 1 <<Geographical Dispersion >>
  4. 4. Social variations Socioeconomic group Ethnic group Education Educated Uneducated Unable to get dialect differences Grammar mistakes Prestige Social institution Standard English <ul><li>High </li></ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul><ul><li>Asian </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic </li></ul><ul><li>Etc </li></ul>gives recognized by which is understood as are make non-standard English recognized by
  5. 5. Standard English Uniformity Linguistic organization Spelling & Punctuation British English American English Spread of Identical Material Grammar & Vocabulary one type of with two subsystems one strong type of non material culture Increasing impact of closer world communication which seems to be because of the type of organization Neutral, formal styles of writing
  6. 6. National Standards of English British & American English Other National Standards predominant Grammatical differences Lexical Differences thousands book per year spread institutionalizing & establishing are considered varieties of English because are because of the by which helps to the have slight Neutralized Mass Communication they can be through English as a Second language Emerging Standards It has adopted quite number of words from indigenous Maoris New Zeland E The increase in wealth , population and world affairs Australian E Differences in vocabulary have been developed for the influence of the Afrikaans South African E The assertion of an independent national identity Canadian E Educational & broadcasting systems Irish E ‘ lallans Scots’ lexical, grammatical, phonological, orthographical differences Scot E
  7. 7. Standard English Pronunciation has Distinct factors in National Standards BrE such as RP prestige old schools & universities non regional taught as a foreign language Fields of Discourse language use has to deal with situations in certain e lexical items which involves Dialects according to varies in Medium spoken/ written can be derive from Situational Transmission of language by speech implies Absence of the person addressed Elements contain more <ul><li>stress </li></ul><ul><li>rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>intonation </li></ul><ul><li>tempo </li></ul>Attitude style of communication formal/ informal can be is a depends on the hearer/ reader topic type of communication
  8. 8. Acceptability and Frequency Common core shared in AmE and BrE Common Features Unmarked Neutral Medium/ Attitude Marked Exclusively Features No-neutral Medium/ Attitude Written/ Spoken Formal/ Informal speaker/writer hearer/reader such as such as some are can be depending on the Grammar Marginal Central can be Morphology Syntax acceptable unacceptable can be