THE STANDARD LANGUAGE Standard English is the variety which forms the basis of printed English in newspapers and books, which is taught in schools. It is the variety we normally try to teach to those who want to learn English as a second language.
LANGUAGE VARIETIES Language VarietiesAccent Dialect
LANGUAGE VARIETIES Every Language-user speaks with an accent Accent It can identify When it is used where an technically it individual describes speaker is aspects offrom, regionally pronunciation. and socially.
LANGUAGE VARIETIES Some regional dialects clearly have stereotyped pronunciations associated with them. Dialect It describes Dialect variations features of in the meaning of grammar and grammatical vocabulary, as constructions are well as aspects less frequentlyof pronunciation documented
LANGUAGE VARIETIES Isogloss: It represents a boundary between the areas with regard to that one particular linguistic item. When a number of isoglosses come together, we can refer to a dialect boundary. The drawing of isoglosses and dialect boundaries is quite useful in establishing a broad view of regional dialects.
LANGUAGE VARIETIES Regional variation as a continuum Bidialectal Bilingualism Speakers who move Speakers who practiceback and forth across two quite distinct anddistinct borders, using different languages indifferent varieties with a same border. E.g some ease. Canada.
LANGUAGE PLANNING Goverment, legal and educational bodies in many countries have to plan which varieties of the languages spoken in the country are to be used for official business. The process os “selection” is followed by “codification” in which basic grammars, dictionaries and written models are used to establish the Standard Variety. The process of “implementation” is largely a matter of goverment attempts to encourage use of the Standard, and “acceptance” is the final stage when a substancial majority of the population have come to use the Estándar and think of it as the national language playing part of their national identity.
LANGUAGE VARIETIES PIDGINS AND CREOLES Pidgin CreoleA variety of a language which PIDGIN: It does not have When a Pidgin developsdeveloped for some practical native speakers. It does not beyond its role as a trade purpose, such as have complex grammatical language and becomes the trading, among groups of morphology. first language of a social people who had a lot of CREOLE: It has a large community, it is described ascontact, but who did not know number of speakers. aCreole. each other’s languages.