Psychology Definitions o From Greek word “psyche” to “talk about the self” o The science of behavior and mental processes research to obtain knowledge about the human mind o Explains mental functions and underlying processes • What is behavior?
Branches of Psychology Clinical o Assessment and treatment individuals with chronic mental disorders or psychological crises (OCD, PTSD, grief) o Can focus on specific group to treat (autistic children), or more generally (addiction, relationship issues, and anxiety) o Licensing and APA-sanctioned internship required to practice Developmental o Study of how we develop intellectually, emotionally, and how we change and grow over the lifespan
Branches of Psychology Industrial/Organizational o Explore relationships between individuals and their work environment o Leadership trust, increase productivity, involved in staffing/personnel selection Social o Individual and group behavior, attitudes, addiction, persuasion, gender issues, self-esteem, motivation, personality, market research, etc. Cognitive/Experimental o Study learning, memory, sensation/perception
Psychology• Scientific psychology = Empirical research studies o “Basic research” to build psychology’s knowledge base o Cognitive, developmental, abnormal, social psychology• Applied psychology = “Real world” psychology o Clinical, sport, or industrial/organizational psychology, market research…
Psychiatry vs. Psychotherapy vs. Psychoanalysis?
Clinical Psychology• Psychiatry = branch of medicine concerned with mental disorders; psychiatrists are medical doctors who prescribe medication• Psychotherapy = a form of treatment emphasizing communication• Psychoanalysis = Freudian theories/techniques emphasizing unconscious conflict
Psychology What makes psychology scientific? • Like all science, psychology follows the empirical method • Data + theory = knowledge • Empiricism = Observation, objectivity, precision, experimentation, etc.
Psychology History • Origins of psychology are rooted in philosophy o Free will vs. Determinism • Plato vs. Aristotle (Ancient Greece) o Plato – Personality/characteristics inherited o Aristotle – Nothing in the mind that does not originate from external world via the senses • Locke vs. Descartes (1600s) o Locke – Mind blank slate at birth; knowledge comes via senses o Descartes – Knowledge not dependent on sense experiences
History• James (1875) o American physician o Wrote classic psychological text Principles of Psychology• Wundt (1879) o German physician o Empiricism: science flourishes via observation/experimentation• Watson (1900s) o Founder of Behaviorist movement o Behaviorism: Ignore mental states and focus only on what is observable (behavior); the mind as a “black box”
History• Psychoanalysis o Freud (1890s) • Emphasized unconscious drives (sex and aggression) as root of all behavior• Humanistic Psychology o Rogers/Maslow (1950s-1960s) • Emphasized free will; the ‘great reservoir’ of human potential • Focused on optimal development rather than negatives• Cognitive Revolution (1960s) o Focused on perception, processing, retrieval of information, how memory works, decision making, “the mind as a computer”, human cognition