Modules 3 and 4 PowerPoint Slides

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Modules 3 and 4 PowerPoint Slides

  1. 1. The Biology of Mind
  2. 2. Nervous System• Relays electrical signals through the body, directs behavior and movement and controls physiological processes• The nervous system can be broken down into two parts: o Central nervous system (CNS) • Brain and spinal cord o Peripheral nervous system (PNS) • Touch, taste, smell nerve cells
  3. 3. Peripheral Nervous System• Somatic Nervous System o Branch of the PNS that transmits sensory information to the CNS and carries out its motor commands• Autonomic Nervous System o Branch of the PNS that carries messages between the CNS and internal organs (digestion, glucose release, respiration) 1) Sympathetic nervous system 2) Parasympathetic nervous system
  4. 4. Autonomic Nervous System1) Sympathetic nervous system  Activates body’s “fight or flight” responses  Increased heart rate, dilated pupils, sweating, dry mouth, stops digestion2) Parasympathetic nervous system  Supports more mundane bodily functions  Regulates blood sugar levels, saliva production, waste management
  5. 5. Neural Communication• Neurons o Nerve cells found throughout the nervous system o Specialize in electrical and chemical communication• Neurotransmitters o Chemical messengers that “transmit” electrons/information across synaptic gaps of neurons then caught by receptor proteins on the next neuron/nerve cell
  6. 6. The BrainSECTION OF BRAIN FUNCTION Receives information from the brain to control basic functions (heart Brain stem rate, respiration, blood pressure, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, etc) Main information pathway between the brain and the spinal cord (like Thalamus the phone jack in the back of your computer) Control center for our bodys homeostasis (regulates body temperature, Hypothalamus appetite, thirst for water, desire for salt, etc). Keeps movements smooth and coordinated, helps maintain posture, Cerebellum muscle tone, and equilibrium/balance Cerebrum Intellect, speech, and memory
  7. 7. The Brain• Occipital Lobe o Specialized for vision• Parietal Lobe o Sense of touch, spatial orientation, awareness• Temporal Lobe o Hearing and language functions, visual pattern recognition• Frontal lobe o Movement, attention, planning, abstract thinking
  8. 8. The Brain• Hemispheric specialization o Each hemisphere control the opposite side of the body o Right hemisphere = excels at spatial function o Left hemisphere = speaking, language, math
  9. 9. Limbic System• Area of the brain that involves emotion and motivation• Fully developed only in mammals• Consists of: • Amygdala - emotional processes; attaches emotional significance to emotional events) • Hypothalamus - regulates the autonomic system • Hippocampus - memory, storing new information
  10. 10. Endocrine System• Collection of glands throughout the body that secrete chemicals (called hormones) directly into bloodstream• Guide metabolism, growth, and sexual development• Adrenaline hormones trigger physiological arousal  Hormones (adrenaline) are similar to neurotransmitters (norepinephrine) related to anxiety/fear  Endocrine system uses hormone secretion to “broadcast” via bloodstream (highway) vs. neurotransmitters which “talk” to one neuron then another in rapid succession
  11. 11. Brain Technology• ESB o Electronic stimulation of the brain (in animals) o Electrode planted in an area of the brain to stimulate that region to determine any changes in behavior• EEG o Used to study electrical activity of the brain o Electrodes placed on scalp and brain becomes “mapped” as areas “light up”• CAT o Computerized axial tomography (MRI, PET) o Assembles three dimensional picture of brain from x-rays o Detection of abnormalities of mass (tumors)
  12. 12. Brain Disorders• Delirium o Disturbance of brain metabolic function o Symptoms include disorientation, hallucinating, disturbed sleep, incoherent speech o Treatment entails removing the underlying cause, detoxification, rehydration, etc. o Common in dying patients as organs shut down
  13. 13. Brain Disorders• Alzheimer’s Disease o Progressive and incurable o Cause by tangled neurons that disrupt functioning of the cortex o Low level of neurotransmitters (ACH) which plays a role in memory function o Neurons in the brain destroyed, severely impairing memory, reasoning, perception, language, behavior o Genetic causes (chromosome 21)?

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