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Pscyhoanalytic & Psychoanalysis

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  1. 1. Personality
  2. 2. What is Personality? • Personality - the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.
  3. 3. The Psychoanalytic Perspective  From Freud’s theory which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality.  Founder of the psychoanalytic movement in psychology.
  4. 4. Freud’s theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
  5. 5. Divisions of Consciousness • Preconscious mind - level of the mind in which information is available but not currently conscious. • Conscious mind - level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions.
  6. 6. • Unconscious mind - level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness. –Can be revealed in dreams and Freudian slips of the tongue.
  7. 7. Freud’s Theory: Parts of Personality • Id - part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious. –Pleasure principle - principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences.
  8. 8. • Ego - part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical. –Reality principle - principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result.
  9. 9. • Superego - part of the personality that acts as a moral center. –Ego ideal - part of the superego that contains the standards for moral behavior. –Conscience - part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal.
  10. 10. • Id: instinctual energy (pleasure principle) • Ego: rational part of psyche (reality principle) • Superego: the conscience (morality principle)
  11. 11. • Psychoanalysis - Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it.
  12. 12. Trait Theories of Personality• Trait theories - theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior. –Trait - a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving. • Key Figures: –Early Trait Theorists: Allport, Cattell, Eysenck –Modern trait theorists: McCrae and Costa’s Five-Factor Model
  13. 13. • Allport first developed a list of about 200 traits and believed that these traits were part of the nervous system. • Cattell reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis.
  14. 14. The Big Five Theory Model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions. • Openness - one of the five factors; willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences. • Conscientiousness - the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.
  15. 15. • Extraversion - dimension of personality referring to one’s need to be with other people. Extraverts - people who are outgoing and sociable. Introverts - people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention.
  16. 16. • Agreeableness - the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant. • Neuroticism - degree of emotional instability or stability.
  17. 17. The Trait Perspective The “Big Five” Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability / Calm versus anxious Neuroticism Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive
  18. 18. Trait Theories Today • Cross-cultural research has found support for the five-factor model of personality traits in a number of different cultures. –Future research will explore the degree to which child-rearing practices and heredity may influence the five personality factors. • Trait–situation interaction - the assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed.