nature of psychology

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A powerpoint presentation about the nature of psychology

Published in: Education, Technology, Spiritual

nature of psychology

  1. 1. Chapter 1 : Introduction The Nature of Psychology Ailene C. Ygot Instructor
  2. 2. Psychology as a Science • psyche (mind) + logos (study) • actions, responses, behavior • How? objective and systematic study Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  3. 3. Psychology as a Science • Goals: describe, explain, predict and control behavior and mental processes • How can I control my fears? • How can I learn to study?
  4. 4. History of Psychology • Nativist View – some ideas are innate  17th century  Rene Descartes • Empiricist View – knowledge is acquired through experiences and interaction with the world NATURE NURTURE
  5. 5. History of Psychology • 1879 – first psychological laboratory • University of Leipzig, Germany • Wilhelm Wundt – Father of Psychology  study on senses – vision  attention, emotions and memory
  6. 6. History of Psychology • 1883 – first psychology lab in the US • John Hopkins University • Granville Stanley Hall • founded the first American Journal of Psychology
  7. 7. History of Psychology • 19th century • Titchener / Wundt • Structuralism  mental structures – perception, consciousness, thinking and emotions  Introspection – method of data collection
  8. 8. History of Psychology • 1900’s • William James • Functionalism  functions of the mind and behavior to adapt to the environment
  9. 9. History of Psychology • 1900’s (US) • John B. Watson • Behaviorism  challenged Functionalism  observable behavior
  10. 10. History of Psychology • 1912 (Germany) • Max Wertheimer • Gestalt Psychology  “gestalt” – form , configuration  the whole is greater than the sum of its parts  experiences cannot be broken down into smaller units
  11. 11. History of Psychology in the Philippines • 17th century – Psychology was taught in the Phils. (UST & USC) • 1926 – first Department of Psychology (UP) • UST – first university to offer undergraduate, master’s and doctoral degrees in Psychology
  12. 12. Pioneers in Psychology in the Philippines • Sinforoso Padilla – established the first psychological clinic in the Philippines in UP in 1932 • Jesus Perpina – set up the FEU psychological clinic in 1933 • Estefania Aldaba-Lim – first Filipino to receive a doctorate in Clinical Psychology. In 1962, she set up the Philippine Psychological Corporation.
  13. 13. Perspectives in Psychology • Psychodynamic Approach • Behavioral Approach • Cognitive Approach • Biological Approach • Phenomenological or Humanistic Approach • Sociocultural Approach
  14. 14. Psychodynamic Approach  Sigmund Freud  behavior stems from the unconscious mind  manifestations – dreams, slips of speech (“Freudian slip”) , or mannerism  Psychoanalysis – therapeutic approach of Freud  Carl Jung and Alfred Adler
  15. 15. Behavioral Approach  John B. Watson – father of Behaviorism  only by studying behavior could psychology be considered a science  mind cannot be observed directly  Stimulus-Response (S-R) psychology – offshoot of behaviorism  Stimulus (environment) – Response (responses to stimulus) - Rewards and Punishments following these responses
  16. 16. Cognitive Approach  mental processes – perceiving remembering reasoning deciding problem solving  how? Focus on specific behaviors and then interpreting them in terms of underlying mental processes
  17. 17. Biological Approach  how the brain underlie behavior and mental processes  physiological processes  neurotransmitters – chemicals produced in the brain that are believed to have an effect on the person’s moods  serotonin  norepinephrine
  18. 18. Phenomenological or Humanistic Approach  subjective and personal experience of events (phenomenology) and the need for personal growth  the belief that an individual’s principal motivational force is a tendency toward growth and self actualization  Abraham Maslow  Carl Rogers
  19. 19. Sociocultural Approach  the ways by which social and cultural environments influence behavior  cultural context should be considered  comparing behavior across countries; or within a country
  20. 20. Depression • Psychodynamic • Behavioral • Cognitive • Biological • Humanistic • Sociocultural • Anger turned inward • Lack of positive reinforcers • Interpretation of their ability to control events • Genetic susceptibility to depression • Self-esteem • Culturally acceptable?
  21. 21. Group Activity Brainstorm on how the emotion ANGER can be understood using the different approaches.

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