Motivation, Emotion, and Stress
Motivation•   What are motives?       o   Needs or desires that prompts an individual into           action and directs be...
Motivation•   Physiological motives       o   Based on the body’s need for survival            •   Hunger            •   T...
Motivation•   Stimulus motives       o   Based on needs to interact with environment            •   Curiosity            •...
Motivation•   Intrinsic motivation    o   Internal drives to perform a task for its own sake         •   More open to dema...
Motivation•   Behaviorist perspective       o   Drives arise from unfulfilled needs       o   Drive-reduction theory      ...
Eating Motivation•   Lateral hypothalamus – “on” switch for eating        o   Stimulation = eating induced        o   Dama...
Sexual Motivation•   Kinsey (1948)       o   “Father of sexology”       o   Explored motives for widely varied human sex  ...
Psychosocial Motivation•   Esteem motivation       o   The need to view one’s self in a positive light       o   Self-enha...
Emotion•   Limbic system    o   Plays a role in transferring information into memory    o   Hippocampus – main location fo...
Emotion•   Cognitive level       o   Having conscious sense of emotion (i.e., being afraid)       o   Emotions are perceiv...
Emotion•   Physiological level        o   Emotions contribute to changes in heart rate, blood            pressure, etc. (i...
Emotion•   Behavioral Level       o   Facial expressions of emotion - smiling, frowning,           clenching fists       o...
Theories of Emotion1) James-Lange theory of emotion     •   Subjective emotions arise from physiological arousal         (...
Theories of Emotion2) Cannon-Bard theory of emotion     •   Emotions and physiological arousal often occur         simulta...
Theories of Emotion3) Schachter-Singer cognitive theory of emotion      •   Two components are necessary to experience emo...
Theories of Emotion3) Schachter-Singer cognitive theory of emotion (con’t)      •   Independent variables:               1...
Emotion•   Positive and negative affect        + affect processed in left frontal lobe        - affect processed in right ...
Emotion•   Anger    o   “A short madness” vs. “Making a coward brave” (Virgil)    o   Anger can feel unpleasant but can al...
Emotion•   Emotion regulation    o   Ability to intensify or maintain positive affect and        practice “mood repair” wh...
Stress•   What is stress?       o   The process by which we perceive and respond to           events and environmental dem...
Stress•   Physiological effects       o   Impairs ability to focus and commit information to           memory       o   Ca...
Stress•   Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)       o   Classified as an anxiety/stress disorder       o   Delay of onse...
Stress•   Psychosomatic disorders    o   Real physical symptoms that begin, continue, or are made        worse by mental o...
Stress•   Hypochondria       o   Obsession that real (or imagined) physical symptoms           are signs of a serious illn...
Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides

1,836 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,836
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
118
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Modules 25-29 PowerPoint Slides

  1. 1. Motivation, Emotion, and Stress
  2. 2. Motivation• What are motives? o Needs or desires that prompts an individual into action and directs behavior o Reflects biological or psychosocial needs
  3. 3. Motivation• Physiological motives o Based on the body’s need for survival • Hunger • Thirst • Sleep • Pain avoidance
  4. 4. Motivation• Stimulus motives o Based on needs to interact with environment • Curiosity • Intellectual activity • Entertainment• Secondary motives o Based on group acceptance • Approval • Individual achievement
  5. 5. Motivation• Intrinsic motivation o Internal drives to perform a task for its own sake • More open to demands of the task • Individual is more willing/eager to learn • Enjoyment of the task often serves as the reward• Extrinsic motivation o Money, good grades, other “external” rewards o “Carrot on a stick” o Can produce good outcomes (in the short-term)
  6. 6. Motivation• Behaviorist perspective o Drives arise from unfulfilled needs o Drive-reduction theory • We do things in order to satiate our needs/reduce drives o Behaviors (including motivation) governed by stimuli in environment
  7. 7. Eating Motivation• Lateral hypothalamus – “on” switch for eating o Stimulation = eating induced o Damage/lesions = immediately lose desire to eat• Ventromedial hypothalamus – “off” switch for eating o Stimulation = inhibition of eating (satiety center activated) o Damage/lesions = leads to overeating, satiety center receives no “off” message
  8. 8. Sexual Motivation• Kinsey (1948) o “Father of sexology” o Explored motives for widely varied human sex practices o Surveyed 5,000 men and over 6,000 women o The Kinsey Report had a profound impact on social awareness of sexuality in the 1950s
  9. 9. Psychosocial Motivation• Esteem motivation o The need to view one’s self in a positive light o Self-enhancement motives• Achievement motivation o To do well, succeed, avoid failure o Take pleasure in completing difficult/challenging tasks o Often highly motivated to avoid failure
  10. 10. Emotion• Limbic system o Plays a role in transferring information into memory o Hippocampus – main location for this transfer o Amygdala – strongly implicated in attaching emotional significance to stimuli/information/events
  11. 11. Emotion• Cognitive level o Having conscious sense of emotion (i.e., being afraid) o Emotions are perceived as having some level of (un)pleasantness and strength o Over 400 words in the English language refer to emotions
  12. 12. Emotion• Physiological level o Emotions contribute to changes in heart rate, blood pressure, etc. (i.e, physiological arousal) o Some physiological changes too small to notice • Polygraph - "lie detector" - used to measure subtle variations in muscle tension, heart rate, etc.
  13. 13. Emotion• Behavioral Level o Facial expressions of emotion - smiling, frowning, clenching fists o “Facial-feedback” hypothesis (Ekman) o Use of facial expression to convey emotion appears to be innate
  14. 14. Theories of Emotion1) James-Lange theory of emotion • Subjective emotions arise from physiological arousal (emotion is the result of behavior) • Therefore, controlling behavior controls emotions o Make yourself smile and you will be happy!
  15. 15. Theories of Emotion2) Cannon-Bard theory of emotion • Emotions and physiological arousal often occur simultaneously • The arousal of one emotion often the same as arousal of another emotion • People cry when happy or when sad (same behavior) yet these emotional states are different (different emotions)
  16. 16. Theories of Emotion3) Schachter-Singer cognitive theory of emotion • Two components are necessary to experience emotion: 1) physiological arousal 2) cognitive labeling of the arousal • We dont automatically know when we are happy, angry, or jealous - instead we label our emotions by considering situational cues • Labeling depends on social settings and cultural norms
  17. 17. Theories of Emotion3) Schachter-Singer cognitive theory of emotion (con’t) • Independent variables: 1) Manipulating arousal through injections 2) Manipulating labeling of emotion by placing subjects with confederates who are either “angry” or “happy” • Results: o Informed subjects reported no change in emotional state o Uninformed subjects happier w/happy confederate o Uninformed subjects angrier w/angry confederate
  18. 18. Emotion• Positive and negative affect + affect processed in left frontal lobe - affect processed in right frontal lobe• High inter-correlation within each type o Experiencing one negative emotion (guilt) also more likely to feel others (anxiety, sadness, self-loathing)
  19. 19. Emotion• Anger o “A short madness” vs. “Making a coward brave” (Virgil) o Anger can feel unpleasant but can also have pleasurable components o An approach-oriented emotion? • Anger creates EEG activity in left frontal lobe (location of positive affect?)
  20. 20. Emotion• Emotion regulation o Ability to intensify or maintain positive affect and practice “mood repair” when facing negative affect o Regulation can take place before/after emotion occurs • Reframing • Suppression
  21. 21. Stress• What is stress? o The process by which we perceive and respond to events and environmental demands  Overstimulation + demands for change  Stressors• Holmes-Rahe Life Events Rating Scale o Measures stress related to 43 common life events o Includes both negative and positive life stressors
  22. 22. Stress• Physiological effects o Impairs ability to focus and commit information to memory o Causes interference with hippocampus and prefrontal cortex activity o Chronic stress can lead to permanent cell death and reduction in hippocampus size
  23. 23. Stress• Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) o Classified as an anxiety/stress disorder o Delay of onset common (up to six months) o Symptoms:  Recurrent flashback episodes  Exaggerated responses to loud noises/sudden touch  Feelings of detachment  Frequent irritability/outbursts of anger
  24. 24. Stress• Psychosomatic disorders o Real physical symptoms that begin, continue, or are made worse by mental or emotional factors o Stress in life literally translates to “a pain in the neck” o Demonstrates the influence of the mind over the body o Symptoms often greatly exacerbated by stress • Migraines, asthma, skin rashes/hives, frequent illness, aches, pain
  25. 25. Stress• Hypochondria o Obsession that real (or imagined) physical symptoms are signs of a serious illness o Preoccupation with fears of becoming ill o Typically chronic – tied to underlying mood disorders

×