Unit 1

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Unit 1

  1. 1. Psychology: Definitions & History
  2. 2. Psychology <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Greek word “psyche” to “talk about the self” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The science of behavior and mental processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of scientific methodology and research to obtain knowledge and discover principles about human behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explains mental functions and underlying processes through scientific study of behavior in humans and animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is behavior? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Branches of Psychology <ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment and treatment individuals with chronic mental disorders (e.g., GAD, schizophrenia) or psychological crises (e.g., PTSD, grief) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can focus on one specific group to treat (e.g., autistic children), or work more generally (e.g., phobias, relationship issues, and marriage counseling) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing and APA-sanctioned internship required to practice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study of how we develop intellectually, emotionally, and how we change and grow over the lifespan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can focus on one developmental phase (e.g., childhood or adolescence) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often teach in academic settings, consult research, or consult in school or social service organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Branches of Psychology <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study individual and group behavior, attitudes, prejudice/discrimination, delinquency, self-esteem, personality, the self </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct research on human behavior, work in academia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial/Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explore relationships between individuals and their work environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explore leadership trust, develop ways to increase productivity, be involved in staffing/personnel selection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work in government, corporate, nonprofit, and academic settings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive/Experimental </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study learning, memory, sensation/perception, language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically work in academic and research settings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Psychology <ul><li>Scientific psychology = Empirical research studies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Basic research” to build psychology’s knowledge base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive, developmental, abnormal, and social psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applied psychology = “Real world” psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical, forensic, sport, industrial/organizational psychology </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>What is </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatry vs. Psychotherapy vs. Psychoanalysis? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Answer: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatry = the branch of medicine concerned with mental disorders; psychiatrists are medical doctors who can prescribe </li></ul><ul><li>medication </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy = a form of treatment emphasizing communication </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis = Freudian theories/techniques emphasizing unconscious conflict </li></ul>
  8. 9. Psychology <ul><li>What makes psychology scientific? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like all science, psychology follows the empirical method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism = observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>objectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>precision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>measurement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experimentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific knowledge is based on data (information from observation) and theory (concepts used to explain data) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data + theory = knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Psychology <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Origins of psychology have roots in philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free will vs. determinism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are we affected more by internal or external influences? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plato vs. Aristotle (Ancient Greece) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plato – personality/characteristics inherited </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle – there is nothing in the mind that does not </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>originate from external world through our senses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locke vs. Descartes (1600s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locke – mind a blank slate at birth and knowledge comes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>via the senses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descartes – knowledge not dependent on sense experiences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>James (1875) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American physician </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote classic psychological text Principles of Psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalism : emphasizes how mental/behavioral processes function and serve to shape our ability to adapt, survive, and flourish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wundt (1879) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>German physician </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism : the view that knowledge comes from experience via senses; science flourishes though observation + experimentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Watson (1900s) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of Behaviorist movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorism : Ignore mental “states” and focus only on what is observable (behavior); the mind as a “black box” </li></ul></ul></ul>History
  11. 12. <ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freud (1890s) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized unconscious drives (sex and aggression) as root of all behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People have powerful unconscious motives outside their conscious awareness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic Psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rogers (1950s) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized free will; the ‘great reservoir’ of human potential </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on optimal development rather than negatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow (1960s) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Revolution (1960s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on perception, processing, retrieval of information, how memory works, decision making, “the mind as a computer” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>History
  12. 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

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