Smells Like Teen Spirit
Cobain/ Topics <ul><li>Bipolar, Mood Disorders,Lithium,Mania </li></ul><ul><li>Biological (Genetic) Basis for Bipolar – Id...
History and Approaches 1-1   <ul><li>1-1   Prologue </li></ul><ul><li>History and Approaches  (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle,...
History and Approaches 1-1   <ul><li>Think (15:00)-Pair (15:00)-Share (20:00)  <<model>> </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates Hall B...
Welcome to Psychology!  <ul><li>Unit 1: </li></ul><ul><li>History, Approaches & </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul>
History:  Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Prescientific Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the mind connected to the body or d...
Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and Plato (428-348 B.C.) </li></ul>Socrates and his student Plato...
Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) </li></ul>Aristotle suggested that the soul is not separable fro...
Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>Rene Descartes  (1596-1650) </li></ul>Descartes, like Plato, believed in soul (mind)-body...
Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>Francis Bacon (1561-1626) </li></ul>Bacon is one of the  founders of modern science ,  pa...
Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>John Locke (1632-1704) </li></ul>Locke held that the mind was a  tabula rasa ,  or  blank...
EMPIRICISM empiricism   – knowledge originates in experience   science should rely on observation and experimentation
Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>What is the relation of mind to the body? </li></ul>Mind and body are connected ( Monism ...
Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>How are ideas formed? </li></ul>Some ideas are  inborn ( nature ) The mind is a blank sla...
History:  Psychology’s Roots Phrenology -  we’ll revisit this later in the course 19 th  c. – Franz  Gall   (Ger): Phrenol...
History: Psych Roots <ul><li>Wilhelm  Wundt  opened the  first psychology laboratory  at the University of  Liepzig  (c.  ...
History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Structuralism used  introspection  (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of ...
History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>1890 –  William James  publishes “ Principles of Psychology ” (most influential text i...
Psychological Science is Born <ul><li>The Unconscious Mind </li></ul>Sigmund  Freud  and his followers emphasized the impo...
History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Psychological Science Develops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wundt --German philosopher and ph...
History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Calkins - 1 st  female pres of APA in1905 </li></ul>...
History:  Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Figure 1- British Psychological Society membership </li></ul>
History:  Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Definition of Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The science of  behavior  (what we do)...
Contemporary Psychology <ul><li>Psychology’s 3 Big Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature v. nurture </li></ul></ul></ul>...
Contemporary Psychology <ul><li>Natural selection  (Charles Darwin) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>principle that those inherited t...
Biopsychosocial approach : Psychology’s  Three  Main  Levels of Analysis
Contemporary Psychology <ul><li>Psychology’s Perspectives (Approaches) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot depends on your viewpoi...
Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Neuroscience How the body and brain enables emotions?...
Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious d...
Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve ...
Psychology’s Subfields:  Basic Research Psychologist What she does Biological Explore the links between brain and mind. De...
Psychology’s Subfields:  Basic Research Data: APA 1997
Psychology’s Subfields:  Applied Research Psychologist What she does Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with ps...
Psychology’s Subfields:  Applied Research Data: APA 1997
<ul><ul><li>Clinical Psychologist  (Ph.D.)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study, assess & treat troubled people </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>Survey:  What you are about to read, including chapter outlines and section heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Question:  As...
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  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules “ The soul is not separable from the body, and the same holds good of particular parts of the soul.” Aristotle, De Anima, 350 B.C.
  • Psychology 7e in Modules Descartes like Plato believed the immaterial mind and physical body were separate but communicated in the brain at pineal gland. Animal spirits moved from the brain to act on the muscles and experiences lead the nerves to open up “pores” in the brain to form memories. Descartes was right about the nerves connecting the inside and the outside worlds but had no notion of how these nerves functioned.
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules OBJECTIVE 6| Identify the three main levels of analysis in the biopsychosocial approach, and explain why psychology’s varied perspectives are complementary. Biopsychosocial approach considers the influence of biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors on behavior. Each approach provides an incomplete explanation of behaviors.
  • Psychology 7e in Modules Although debates arise among the psychologists working from differing perspectives, each point of view addresses important questions.
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules OBJECTIVE 7| Identify some of the psychology’s subfields, and explain the difference between clinical psychology and psychiatry.
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • Psychology 7e in Modules
  • U1 history approaches slides

    1. 1. Smells Like Teen Spirit
    2. 2. Cobain/ Topics <ul><li>Bipolar, Mood Disorders,Lithium,Mania </li></ul><ul><li>Biological (Genetic) Basis for Bipolar – Identical twins 70% v Fraternal <20%, (Twin Studies) </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization (Defense Mechanism) </li></ul><ul><li>Heroin (Endorphin Agonist) </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar = Manic Depression </li></ul>
    3. 3. History and Approaches 1-1 <ul><li>1-1 Prologue </li></ul><ul><li>History and Approaches (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Monism, Dualism, Empiricism, Wundt, Titchener, Structuralism, Functionalism, Darwin, Calkins, Watson, Freud, 3 Big Issues, 5 Big Perspectives, Basic v Applied Research, Clinical Psychologists v Psychiatrists, G Stanley Hall) </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Summarize the views of prescientific thinkers regarding the origins of knowledge and how the mind and body relate. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Discuss early psychologists’ efforts to understand the structure and function of the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Describe psychology’s concerns regarding stability and change, rationality and irrationality, and nature and nurture. </li></ul><ul><li>4.  Briefly describe the different perspectives from which psychologists examine behavior and mental processes and explain their complementarity. </li></ul><ul><li>5 .  Identify some of the basic and applied research sub-fields of psychology, and differentiate the mental health professions of clinical psychology and psychiatry. </li></ul>
    4. 4. History and Approaches 1-1 <ul><li>Think (15:00)-Pair (15:00)-Share (20:00) <<model>> </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates Hall Biopsychosocial Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Plato Bacon Dix </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle Locke Wertheimer </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes Empiricism Galton </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism Wundt Structuralism </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalism Skinner Titchener </li></ul><ul><li>James Watson Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Calkins Gall Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Washburn Monism Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Nature v. Nurture Rationality v. Irrationality Stability v. Change </li></ul>
    5. 5. Welcome to Psychology! <ul><li>Unit 1: </li></ul><ul><li>History, Approaches & </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul>
    6. 6. History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Prescientific Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience? </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and Plato (428-348 B.C.) </li></ul>Socrates and his student Plato believed the mind was separate from the body ( Dualism ), the mind continued to exist after death, and ideas were innate. ( Nature ) Socrates Plato http://www.law.umkc.edu http://www.law.umkc.edu
    8. 8. Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) </li></ul>Aristotle suggested that the soul is not separable from the body ( Monism ) and that knowledge (ideas) grow from experience. ( Nurture ) http://faculty.washington.edu “ nothing exists in mind that doesn’t come through senses”
    9. 9. Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>Rene Descartes (1596-1650) </li></ul>Descartes, like Plato, believed in soul (mind)-body separation ( Dualism ), but wondered how the immaterial mind and physical body communicated. http://www.spacerad.com http://ocw.mit.edu
    10. 10. Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>Francis Bacon (1561-1626) </li></ul>Bacon is one of the founders of modern science , particularly the experimental method . http://www.iep.utm.edu
    11. 11. Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>John Locke (1632-1704) </li></ul>Locke held that the mind was a tabula rasa , or blank slate , at birth, and experiences wrote on it. ( Empiricism ) biografieonline.it/img/bio/John_Locke.jpg
    12. 12. EMPIRICISM empiricism – knowledge originates in experience  science should rely on observation and experimentation
    13. 13. Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>What is the relation of mind to the body? </li></ul>Mind and body are connected ( Monism ) Mind and body are distinct ( Dualism ) The Hebrews Socrates Aristotle Plato Augustine Descartes
    14. 14. Prescientific Psychology <ul><li>How are ideas formed? </li></ul>Some ideas are inborn ( nature ) The mind is a blank slate ( nurture ) Socrates Aristotle Plato Locke
    15. 15. History: Psychology’s Roots Phrenology - we’ll revisit this later in the course 19 th c. – Franz Gall (Ger): Phrenology – scientists analyzed shape of skull  lumps liked to certain “ faculties of mind ”
    16. 16. History: Psych Roots <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Liepzig (c. 1879 ) </li></ul><ul><li>-Made Psychology an independent discipline (no longer a stepchild of philosophy or physiology) </li></ul><ul><li>His student Edward Titchener introduced “Structuralism” </li></ul>
    17. 17. History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind </li></ul><ul><li>-Introspection of consciousness – look inward and report elements of experience </li></ul><ul><li> systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Report sensations, feelings, images when listening to Beethoven </li></ul><ul><li> issue: requires articulate ind </li></ul>
    18. 18. History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>1890 – William James publishes “ Principles of Psychology ” (most influential text in history of Psych- 1 st psych text ) </li></ul><ul><li> James- Functionalist –belief that psychology should how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish </li></ul>
    19. 19. Psychological Science is Born <ul><li>The Unconscious Mind </li></ul>Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior. Freud (1856-1939)
    20. 20. History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Psychological Science Develops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wundt --German philosopher and physiologist, Father of Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James --American philosopher, functionalism , 1 st Psych Textbook, “ Principles of Psychology ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov --Russian physiologist, Classical Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud --Austrian physician, Psychoanalytic Perspective, focus on unconscious mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget --Swiss biologist, developmental psychologist focused on child cognitive development </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Calkins - 1 st female pres of APA in1905 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Margaret Foy Washburn – 1 st female psych Ph.D ., 2 nd female pres of APA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Francis Galton – Darwin’s Cousin; wrote “ Heriditary Genius ” in 1869, believed that traits of personality were entirely inherited ; used his theories to promote racial seperation and eventually eradication of “lesser races” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G Stanley Hall – first president of APA in 1892 , described adolescence as “storm & stress” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)— Gestaltist who examined a person’s total experience (whole is more than just accumulation of parts); stroboscopic motion </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Figure 1- British Psychological Society membership </li></ul>
    23. 23. History: Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Definition of Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Psyche” (mind) </li></ul><ul><li>  -ology = “study of” </li></ul>
    24. 24. Contemporary Psychology <ul><li>Psychology’s 3 Big Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature v. nurture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stability v. Change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rationality v. Irrationality </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Contemporary Psychology <ul><li>Natural selection (Charles Darwin) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>principle that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Biopsychosocial approach : Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
    27. 27. Contemporary Psychology <ul><li>Psychology’s Perspectives (Approaches) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot depends on your viewpoint—eg. Depression, alcoholism, abusive behavior, pathological lying </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Neuroscience How the body and brain enables emotions? How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies? Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
    29. 29. Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas? Behavioral How we learn observable responses? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
    30. 30. Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve information? How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving? Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures? How are we — as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans – alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
    31. 31. Psychology’s Subfields: Basic Research Psychologist What she does Biological Explore the links between brain and mind. Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb. Cognitive Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems. Personality Investigate our persistent traits. Social Explore how we view and affect one another.
    32. 32. Psychology’s Subfields: Basic Research Data: APA 1997
    33. 33. Psychology’s Subfields: Applied Research Psychologist What she does Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders Counseling Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges. Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings Industrial/ Organizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
    34. 34. Psychology’s Subfields: Applied Research Data: APA 1997
    35. 35. <ul><ul><li>Clinical Psychologist (Ph.D.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study, assess & treat troubled people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer & interpret tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage mental health programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct basic & applied research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychiatrists (M.D.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat Physical causes of psychological disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribe drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul>Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
    36. 36. <ul><li>Survey: What you are about to read, including chapter outlines and section heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Ask questions. Make notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Read: Make sure you read outlines, sections and chapters in entirety. </li></ul><ul><li>Review: Margin definitions. Study learning outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect: On what you learn. Test yourself with quizzes. </li></ul>Close-up Your Study of Psychology S urvey, Q uestion, R ead, R eview and R eflect (SQ3R)

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