Memory
Memory•   Amount of previously learned material that has    been retained•   Involves (1) encoding, (2) storage, and (3)re...
Standard Model of Memory
Memory•   Sensory registers       o   Encoding of information retrieved through senses       o   Holds information about a...
Memory•   Short-term memory (STM)       o   STM takes over when information in sensory           memory transferred to con...
1 4 9 1 6 2 5 3 6 4 9 6 4 8 1
1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81
How is information stored in STM?1) Primacy effect – information occurring first is                      remembered better...
How is information stored in STM?4) Frequency effect – rehearsal, rehearsal, rehearsal5) Distinctiveness – any distinctive...
Memory•   Long-term memory (LTM)       o Enduring       o May last a lifetime       o Unlimited capacity?       o LTM memo...
Memory•   Subcategories of LTM       o   Declarative memory = Memories for facts, life events,                            ...
Memory•   Subcategories of LTM (con’t)       o   Implicit memory = Memories expressed in behavior                         ...
Forgetting•   Passive decay       o   Memory loss associated with lack of use       o   Can occur in LTM•   Encoding failu...
Forgetting•   Retrieval failure        o   Difficulty accessing LTM        o   “Tip of the tongue” phenomenon•   Repressio...
Forgetting•   Retrograde amnesia       o   Inability to recall memories of the past (The Bourne Identity)       o   Can fo...
Forgetting•   Causes of amnesia       o   Damage to hippocampus       o   Acute stress       o   Neurodegenerative causes ...
Forgetting
Memory•   Improving memory       o   Mnemonics            •   Adding additional cues for retrieval            •   Acronyms...
Memory•   Best practices for improving memory       o   Spaced practice       o   Sleeping right after learning       o   ...
Modules 20 and 21 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 20 and 21 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 20 and 21 PowerPoint Slides
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Modules 20 and 21 PowerPoint Slides

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Modules 20 and 21 PowerPoint Slides

  1. 1. Memory
  2. 2. Memory• Amount of previously learned material that has been retained• Involves (1) encoding, (2) storage, and (3)retrieval• Memory is a net, not a bucket• Memory = retention
  3. 3. Standard Model of Memory
  4. 4. Memory• Sensory registers o Encoding of information retrieved through senses o Holds information about a stimulus only a few seconds at best o Iconic (visual) memory o Echoic (auditory) memory o Haptic (cutaneous) memory
  5. 5. Memory• Short-term memory (STM) o STM takes over when information in sensory memory transferred to consciousness/awareness o Limited capacity o STM memories easy to access and retrieve
  6. 6. 1 4 9 1 6 2 5 3 6 4 9 6 4 8 1
  7. 7. 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81
  8. 8. How is information stored in STM?1) Primacy effect – information occurring first is remembered better than information occurring later2) Recency effect – information presented last is sometimes remembered better because not as much time has passed3) Serial position effect – information most likely to be remembered is what comes first and and last, while what is most likely to be forgotten is whatever is crowded in the middle
  9. 9. How is information stored in STM?4) Frequency effect – rehearsal, rehearsal, rehearsal5) Distinctiveness – any distinctive information stands out from other information around it and is remembered better 6) Associations – associating/attaching information to other information
  10. 10. Memory• Long-term memory (LTM) o Enduring o May last a lifetime o Unlimited capacity? o LTM memories harder to access/retrieve
  11. 11. Memory• Subcategories of LTM o Declarative memory = Memories for facts, life events, information about environment • Semantic memory = Factual knowledge about world (names, dates, #s) • Episodic memory = Tied to specific events, situations (“flashbulb memories”)
  12. 12. Memory• Subcategories of LTM (con’t) o Implicit memory = Memories expressed in behavior but do not require conscious recollection • Procedural memory = “How to” knowledge of procedures or skills (ride a bike, tie a shoe, drive a car) o Prospective memory = Remembering things that need to be done in the future (“remembering to remember”)
  13. 13. Forgetting• Passive decay o Memory loss associated with lack of use o Can occur in LTM• Encoding failure o Information never consolidated beyond initial sensory register stage
  14. 14. Forgetting• Retrieval failure o Difficulty accessing LTM o “Tip of the tongue” phenomenon• Repression o Unconscious motive to forget an emotionally traumatic memory o Pain/trauma of some experience creates a mental block preventing retrieval of that memory
  15. 15. Forgetting• Retrograde amnesia o Inability to recall memories of the past (The Bourne Identity) o Can form new LTM• Anterograde amnesia o Inability to form new LTM (Memento) o New events contained in STM are not transferred to LTM memory
  16. 16. Forgetting• Causes of amnesia o Damage to hippocampus o Acute stress o Neurodegenerative causes • Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s
  17. 17. Forgetting
  18. 18. Memory• Improving memory o Mnemonics • Adding additional cues for retrieval • Acronyms = PEMDAS, GRE, Roy G. Bv • “Geography” = George Eagle’s Old Grandmother Rode A Pig Home Yesterday o Eidetic images • Pairing semantic memories w/visual cues o Method of loci
  19. 19. Memory• Best practices for improving memory o Spaced practice o Sleeping right after learning o Mood congruence o Environmental restructuring

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