Modules 10-12 PowerPoint Slides


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Modules 10-12 PowerPoint Slides

  1. 1. Developmental Psychology
  2. 2. Development• Developmental psychology o Studies maturation of human behavior over time o Recent shift from adolescent studies to lifespan research• Maturation o Individual growth/development biologically based o What is the interaction between hereditary and environment?
  3. 3. Development• Infancy o Newborns have simple adaptive reflexes • Rooting reflex • Tonic neck reflex • Palmar grasp reflex • Plantar reflex o Motor reflexes develop during later critical periods • Smiling, turning head, rolling over, crawling, walking
  4. 4. Piaget• Assimilation o Occurs when new experiences are incorporated into existing schema• Accommodation o Occurs by changing existing schemas to accommodate new information o Can be a more difficult process
  5. 5. Piaget• Stages of Cognitive Development o Cognitive schemas o Emphasized how children’s mental abilities progress qualitatively on a fixed sequence of stages o At each stage of development, children use a distinct type of thought to guide thinking
  6. 6. Piaget• Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 2 years) o Earliest stage o Child is completely egocentric o No sense that objects are separate from themselves o Learning occurs through use of hands and mouth o Object permanence? • The understanding an object continues to exist even when you cant see it or touch it
  7. 7. Piaget• Preoperational (2-7 years) o Conserving number, length, amount, weight, and volume is difficult o Perceptual impression chosen over logic o Putting self in another person’s place is difficult o Contradicting themselves is not a problem o Language acquisition and symbolic thinking
  8. 8. Piaget• Concrete Operational (7-11 years) o Thinking can be reversed and a sequence of changes can be held in the mind o ‘ Awareness of other people’s viewpoints o Appearance of systematic and logical reasoning
  9. 9. Piaget• Formal Operational (12+ years) o Ability to recombine groups into fewer or broader categories develops o Defining concepts using other abstract concepts is possible o Can use analogies to understand concepts o Independent, abstract thinking o Can think about thinking
  10. 10. Development• Critical periods o Genetically pre-determined maturation phases o Periods of extremely high sensitivity to stimuli from environment that shape future development o Victor of Aveyron/LEnfant Sauvage (1799) o Calrson et al. (1987) visual deprivation in monkeys
  11. 11. Development• Imprinting o Duckling studies (Lorenz) • Hatching appears to be a critical period for ducklings • 1st large moving object they see becomes imprinted as the mother o Early animal imprinting with humans = good pets o Harlow’s rhesus monkeys
  12. 12. Development• Parenting styles o Authoritative o Authoritarian o Permissive o Uninvolved
  13. 13. Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development• Preconventional morality o Follow moral rules to avoid punishment or obtain rewards• Conventional morality o Define what is right by the standards learned from others o Internal belief in the moral rules learned• Postconventional morality o Use of self-defined moral principles that may not match conventional moral beliefs o Morals defined by one’s culture may be viewed as a social contract and potentially fallible
  14. 14. Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory
  15. 15. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development
  16. 16. Methodology• Cross-sectional designs o Studying separate groups at the same time o Sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders o Be aware of potential confounds• Longitudinal designs o Studying the same individuals/group over time o Sample of 8th graders tested again in 10th and 12th grade o Be aware of attrition
  17. 17. Disorders• Autism o Extreme social withdrawal + impaired verbal/nonverbal communication skills o Physical condition linked to abnormal chemistry in brain o Asperger syndrome • Milder form of autism • Delayed motor development milestones • Intense preoccupation w/narrow area of interest (phone books)
  18. 18. Death and Grief• 5 Stages of Grief (Kubler-Ross, 1977) o Denial o Bargaining/rationalization o Anger o Grief/sadness o Acceptance