What Is Psychology

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What Is Psychology

  1. 1. What Is Psychology?<br />Chapter 1<br />
  2. 2. Psychology: <br />Scientific study of behavior and mental processes by an organism’s physical, state, mental state and external environment.<br />4 goals<br /><ul><li>Describe
  3. 3. Understand
  4. 4. Predict
  5. 5. Control/Modify</li></li></ul><li>Goals <br />“Freida is always on my back about the way I eat.” (Describe)<br />“She’s a health nut.” (Understand)<br />“If I don’t do something, I’m going to be nagged for the rest of my life.” (Predict)<br />“I’ll eat wheat germ and drink carrot juice once a week, and maybe that will buy me some peace.” (Modify)<br />
  6. 6. What is “psychobabble”? <br />Pseudoscience<br />Quackery covered by a veneer of psychological language<br /> What is the harm in accepting an explanation of human behavior that has no evidence to support it?<br />Horoscopes<br /><ul><li>No actual evidence
  7. 7. Occasional correct guesses are due to vagueness, shrewd guesses, or inside information.</li></li></ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt<br />Founder<br />Founded psychology in 1879<br />Had studied medicine and philosophy<br />
  8. 8. Perspectives<br />Biological<br />A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.<br />Learning<br />A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories.<br />
  9. 9. Perspectives (cont.)<br />Cognitive <br />A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.<br />Sociocultural<br />A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.<br />
  10. 10. Perspectives (cont.)<br />Psychodynamic<br />A psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy.<br />
  11. 11. Critical Thinking <br />The ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.<br />
  12. 12. Guidelines to Critical Thinking<br />Ask questions<br />Define the problem<br />Examine the evidence<br />Analyze assumptions and biases<br />Avoid emotional reasoning<br />Don’t oversimplify<br />Consider other interpretations<br />Tolerate uncertainty<br />
  13. 13. Critical thinking and peanuts<br />Do you think he used any of the guidelines for critical thinking?<br />

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