Personality• Psychodynamic Perspective (Freud) o Emphasizes sexuality and unconscious motives as root of personality o Neurotic symptoms caused by psychological traumas • Emotions resulting from trauma expressed indirectly via weak/vague behaviors that are meaningful
Personality• Psychodynamic Perspective (Freud) o Free association often impaired by unconscious resistance o Repressed thoughts/memories/impulses trigger anxiety when brought forth and are therefore continually pushed into unconscious
Personality• Three basic subsystems of personality – “The psyche” - Id • Most primitive portion of personality; reservoir of sexual and aggressive energy; “pleasure principle” - Superego • Conscious parental voice; represents internalized rules of parents/society (often conflicts with Id) - Ego • Attempts to balance Id and Superego via “reality principle”
Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development (Freud)
Personality• Defense mechanisms (Freud) o Regression o Projection o Displacement o Denial o Sublimation o Passive aggression
Personality• Jung o Unconscious contains more than repressed thoughts and feelings (“collective unconscious”) o Ego - Conscious component at center of individuality o Persona - Social roles that influence behavior o “Shadow” - Parts of self repressed by persona o Anima/animus – Unconscious masculine/feminine traits
Personality• Humanistic Perspective (Rogers) o Central feature of personality is the self-concept • If self-concept is +, we tend to act/perceive world as + • If self-concept is –, we fall short of “ideal” self and feel dissatisfied and unhappy o People are basically good and self-actualizing • Criticisms?
Personality• Personality traits vs. states o Trait = enduring/stable aspects of personality o States = temporary/situationally induced
Personality• Trait Perspectives of Personality o Eysenck’s 3-factor model • Extraversion – sociable, assertive, sensation-seeking • Neuroticism – tendencies toward anxiety or fear • Psychoticism – impulsivity, aggressive, antisocial• Personality assessment o Observation (interviews) o Personality inventories/surveys (MMPI) o Projective tests (Rorschach, TAT)
Personality• Trait Perspectives of Personality (con’t) o “Big 5 Model” includes Eysencks traits of extroversion and neuroticism but expanded psychoticism o O.C.E.A.N. o Open to experiences o Conscientiousness o Extroversion o Agreeableness o Neuroticism
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Clinical Scales of the MMPI Scale Abbreviation What it purports to measure Hypochondriasis Hs Concern with bodily functions Depression D Pessimism, hopelessness Hysteria Hy Exaggeration of symptoms Psychopathy Pd Disregard for social standards Masculinity Mf Gender role-based interests Paranoia Pa Suspiciousness, delusions of persecution Psychasthenia Pt Guilt feelings, tendency to worry Schizophrenia Sc Bizarre thoughts, withdrawn Hypomania Ma Overactive, excited, impulsive Introversion Si Shyness, inhibition
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Term DescriptionI Introverted Withdrawn from social interactionE Extraverted Seeks social interactionS Sensate Perception-oriented to external cuesN Intuitive Perception-oriented to internal cuesT Thinking Judge according to logic/reasonF Feeling Judge according to emotionJ Judging Decisive, rigidP Perceptive Flexible but indecisive
ENFJ (Extroverted feeling with intuiting): Easy speakers, idealize their friends, make good parents, but have a tendency to allow themselves to be used. They make good therapists, teachers, executives, and salespeople. ENFP (Extroverted intuiting with feeling): These people love novelty and surprises, are big on emotions and expression. They also tend to feel self-conscious. They are good at sales, advertising, politics, and acting. ENTJ (Extroverted thinking with intuiting): In charge at home, expect a lot from spouses/kids, like organization and structure and tend to make good executives and administrators. ENTP (Extroverted intuiting with thinking): Lively, not humdrum. A little dangerous, especially economically. Good at analysis and make good entrepreneurs. They do tend to play “one-up-manship”. ESFJ (Extroverted feeling with sensing): Like harmony, have strong ‘shoulds’ and ‘should-nots’. May be dependent, first on parents and later on spouses, wear their hearts on their sleeves and excel in service occupations involving personal contact. ESFP (Extroverted sensing with feeling): Very generous and impulsive, have a low tolerance for anxiety. They make good performers, like public relations, and they love the phone. Tend to avoid scholarly pursuits, especially science. ESTJ (Extroverted thinking with sensing): Responsible mates and parents and are loyal to the workplace. They are realistic, down-to-earth, orderly, and love tradition. ESTP (Extroverted sensing with thinking): Action-oriented, often sophisticated, sometimes ruthless ("James Bond“). As mates, they are exciting and charming, but have trouble with commitment. They make good promoters and entrepreneurs.
ISTJ (Introverted sensing with thinking): These are dependable pillars of strength. They often try to reform their mates and other people. They make good bank examiners, auditors, accountants, tax examiners, supervisors in libraries and hospitals, business, and phys. ed. teachers, etc. ISTP (Introverted thinking with sensing): These people are action-oriented and fearless, and crave excitement. They are impulsive and dangerous to stop. They often like tools, instruments, and weapons, and often become technical experts. They are not interested in communications and are often incorrectly diagnosed as dyslexic or hyperactive. They tend to do badly in school. INFJ (Introverted intuiting with feeling): Serious students and workers who want to contribute, are private and easily hurt. They make good spouses, but tend to be physically reserved. They make good therapists, ministers, and practitioners. INFP (Introverted feeling with intuiting): Idealistic, self-sacrificing, and somewhat cool or reserved. They are very family and home oriented, but dont relax well. Work in psychology, architecture, and religion, but rarely in business. INTJ (Introverted intuiting with thinking): The most independent of all types, love logic and ideas, and are drawn to scientific research. INTP (Introverted thinking with intuiting): Faithful, preoccupied, and forgetful, these are the bookworms. They are good at logic and math and make good philosophers and theoretical scientists, but not writers or salespeople. ISFJ (Introverted sensing with feeling): These people are service and work oriented. They may suffer from fatigue and tend to be attracted to troublemakers. They are good nurses, teachers, secretaries, general practitioners, librarians, middle managers, and housekeepers. ISFP (Introverted feeling with sensing): They are shy and retiring, are not talkative, but like sensuous action. They like painting, drawing, sculpting, composing, dancing -- the arts generally -- and they like nature. They are not big on commitment.
Personalityo Social-Cognitive Perspective • Reciprocal determinism (Bandura) o Personality constructed via interactions of: 1) Socio-environmental factors (modeling/conditioning) 2) Internal cognitive factors (self-regulation; meta-cognition) 3) Behavior (nature/frequency/intensity of action)