BehaviorismBehaviorism is the prediction andcontrol of human behavior inwhich and/or independentthinking play no essential part ofits teaching methods.
Ivan Pavlov (1894-1936) •Ivan Pavlov, behaviorist, won a Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1904. •He used classical conditioning, which refers to the natural reflex that occurs in response to a stimulus, in order to teach dogs to salivate when he rang a bell. •The idea of classical conditioning soon spread to humans as more and more behaviorists believed that this idea had human applications.
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)•B.F Skinner was a behavioral scientistwho came up with a behaviorist modelof education called operantconditioning•In his behavioral model, He believedthat when a student is positivelyrewarded for behaving in a matter thatis desirable to the instructor, the childwill learn how to behave in that way.•Also reinforcement has been found tobe a powerful motivator.
Albert Bandura•Born in 1925, Albert Bandura is well known forhis ideas on the Social Cognitive Theory.•Motivational factors and self-regulatorymechanisms are what Bandura believescontributes most to a person’s behavior.•Observational modeling, which is watchingsomething and then mimicking the observedbehavior, is another theory Bandura hasexperimented with.
Teachers and Behaviorism With technology: The teacher can reward students for receiving an excellent grade on an assignment or for simply completing a project early by allowing the student to use a classroom computer. The student would be allowed to utilize their computer time to play learning or typing games. Without technology: The teacher can still reward students for exceptional work by allowing extra time at recess or a small gift, such as a sticker.
Students and Behaviorism With technology: There are several computer programs now that simulate a quiz-based activity. For a correct behavior/answer, positive reinforcement is given to the student, yet for an incorrect response, a negative reinforcement is the result. Without technology: Students still enjoy receiving positive feedback for their answers and will work hard to achieve the praise/reward from a teacher, not simply a computer. Therefore, if a teacher focuses on verbalizing the feedback, the students will strive to have that recognition for themselves.
Using Behaviorism in Teaching First a teacher would have set guidelines of how one is to behave during class. A teacher will positively reward behavior that is desired so a child will learn to behave in that manner more consistently. Rewarding behaviors like 100% homework that is turned in, with a pizza party when a class has behaved well as a whole. A teacher will also punish negative behavior. For example, detention for being late, staying indoors during recess because of bad behavior, and so on. In a technology sense, every time that a quiz or test is taken by computer, there is a positive response to correct answers such as great job or well done. Whenever there is a wrong answer, there can be something like please try again.
Credits Image sources: B.F. Skinner Image: http://www.skeptically.org/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpict ures/skinner-bust-70s.jpg Ivan Pavlov Image: http://www.famouspeopleinfo.com/wp- content/uploads/2011/10/Ivan-Pavlov-1.jpg Albert Bandura Image: http://www.northlandprep.org/albert%20bandura.gif Source of information: Shelly, Gary B. "Learning Theories and Educational Research." Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom. Boston, MA: Thomson/Course Technology, 2008. 367-70. Print.