EME 2040 Leaning Theorist Activity


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EME 2040 Leaning Theorist Activity

  1. 1. Behaviorism EME 2040 VA L E R I A N , B R A N D I M , LINDA R, AND BERTHA P
  2. 2. Theorists Associated With Behaviorism  Ivan Pavlov  John B. Watson  B.F. Skinner  Albert Bandura
  3. 3.  Created the process of classic Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936) conditioning by teaching dogs to associate the ringing of a bell with food. As a result, the dogs began to salivate when they heard the bell, even if the food was not present.  His experiments were intended to study digestion, but other behaviorists studied his work as an example of stimulus response.  Won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1904  These experiments made classic conditioning famous.
  4. 4.  Extended Ivan Pavlov’s work and John B. Watson (1878 – 1958) applied it to human beings.  Is famous for his experiment with Albert, an 11 month old infant, who he trained to become afraid of a white rat by pairing it with a very loud, jarring noise.  The implications of his experiment suggested that classic conditioning could cause some phobias in humans.
  5. 5.  Described operant conditioning as learning B.F. Skinner (1904 – 1990) that is controlled and results in shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus-response patterns.  Conducted experiments with pigeons by rewarding them when he saw them behaving in a desired manner. Using this technique, he was able to teach pigeons to dance and play bowling.  Believed that people shape their behavior based on the rewards or positive reinforcement they receive.  Many classroom management techniques are based on Skinner’s principles of his stimulus-response theory.
  6. 6.  Is famous for his ideas on social learning, which Albert Bandura (1925 – Present)      he renamed Social Cognitive Theory. Focuses on those motivational factors and selfregulatory mechanisms that contribute to a person’s behavior, rather just environmental mechanisms. Believes that people acquire behaviors, first, through the observation to imitate what they have observed. This concept is known as observational modeling. His ideas on social learning have been applied in the context of behavior modification, which is widely used in training programs. Recently, his work focuses on the concept of self-efficacy. Bandura analyzes a person’s personality through the interaction of three things: the environment, the behavior, and the person’s psychological processes.
  7. 7. Key Points of Behaviorism  Prediction and control of human behavior  No dividing line between man and animal  Both learn through positive and negative rewards  Human learning is purely an objective  Classic conditioning  Natural reflex that occurs in response to stimulus  Operant conditioning  Controlled learning that results in shaping behavior through reinforcement of stimulus-response patterns  Observational modeling  Watching something and mimicking the behavior observed  Self-efficacy  Personal observation of one’s ability to feel, think, and motivate oneself to learn
  8. 8. What do students do under this theory  Without technology:  Behavior modification through positive reinforcement  Students give each other positive feedback  With technology:  Using learning management systems, such as Canvas, give students receive feedback quickly  Students use Skype to communicate with teachers for additional help on assignments
  9. 9. What the teacher does without technology  Teacher uses positive and negative reinforcement  a. Positive reinforcement when a desired behavior occurs  b. Negative reinforcement when the student doesnot provide the desired behavior  Punishment  a. Positive Punishment- something is added to decrease undesired behavior  b. Negative Punishment- something is removed to decrease undesired behavior
  10. 10. What the teacher does without technology  Give the learner immediate feedback  Break down the task into small steps  Repeat the directions as many times as possible  Modeling- the teacher demonstrates a behavior, which is then repeated by the student.  Work from the most simple to the most complex task
  11. 11. What the teacher does with technology  Use the computers in the classroom to reinforce topics covered.   a. drill-and-practice software b. praise correct answer to tutorial software  Integrate games  Allow students to use the internet  Teacher uses PowerPoint to make presentations to the class
  12. 12. What you think about the theory for your own teaching Behaviorism is a good theory to use in teaching because it is based on a system of positive and negative rewards. For many students, this type of conditioning is good for their learning. B.F. Skinner believed that people base their behavior based on the rewards they receive. If students see that they are receiving positive reinforcement with the actions they are doing, the chances are high of them continuing to do the same actions and will enjoy learning because students like the positive feedback they receive.
  13. 13. References  http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning       pavlov.html http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/19 04/pavlov_postcard.jpg http://eweb.furman.edu/~einstein/watson/jbwform.jpg http://www.cognitivedesignsolutions.com/images/BFSkinner2.j pg http://news.stanford.edu/news/2007/december5/gifs/graw_ban dura.jpg Textbook pages 258-261 http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html http://blog.ps119amersfort.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/pavlovs_dog.jpeg