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- 1. Behaviourisme theory in teaching mathematics<br />By Group 6<br />Helmy,Sumartini,Roziana,Norhayati<br />
- 2. Behaviourisme theory<br />Operant conditioning<br />By Skinner<br />Classical<br />By Pavlov <br />
- 3. Main idea about operant conditioning…<br />Stimulus<br />Response<br />Reinforcement (negative / positive)<br />Punishment<br />periodic<br />continuous<br />time<br />ratio<br />fixed<br />fixed<br />variable<br />variable<br />
- 4. Stimulus and Response<br />A student will give response by<br />stimulus given.<br />
- 5. Negative Reinforcement<br />a student response by<br />negative situation (stimulus) and this<br />situation is keep repeating. <br />Eg: minah keep singing during class because her teacher never told her to stop singing during class.<br />
- 6. Positive Reinforcement<br />a student response by<br />positive situation (stimulus) and this<br />situation is keep repeating. <br />Forms of positive reinforcement: go <br />home/recess early, miss one day <br />homework, use a computer in lab & etc.<br />
- 7. Punishment<br />To prevent undesirable behaviors <br />Eg: A student may loss recess if his/her can’t finish his/her work at the given time.<br />
- 8. The differences between negative reinforcement and punishment.<br />
- 9. Periodic reinforcement(time)<br />Fixed interval<br />A teacher state a time, when the time<br />is finish, reinforcement is given.<br />Variable interval<br />A teacher give reinforcement at the end of <br />the time, but the time given is not fixed <br />depends on student’s response <br />
- 10. Periodic reinforcement(ratio)<br />Follow a fixed ratio<br />eg: 2:1 ( for every 2 response 1<br />reinforcement is given )<br />Follow a variable ratio<br />The reinforcement given not depends<br />on the fixed response<br />
- 11. Continuous reinforcement<br />For every response a student will get<br />reinforcement<br />
- 12. Problems in mathematics<br />The major problems are<br />Student’s mind set<br />Lack of understanding in mathematics concept<br />Lack of exercise<br />
- 13. How the theory may help…<br />Give positive reinforcement for those<br />who are<br />able to finish their homework. <br />Mathematics is about understanding<br />and practice and drill. By do their work<br />again and again will increase their<br />understanding.<br />
- 14. But remember…<br />Don’t let the loser ‘win’ again and again.<br />If a teacher do not ‘looking’ at the <br />interrupter in class, he/she will continue <br />he/she behavior because the teacher <br />is ‘giving’ a passport for them to do <br />again and again ( negative<br />reinforcement is given silently by the<br /> teacher )<br />
- 15. Student’s mind set<br /> Make mathematics is fun during<br />learning and make them involved <br />actively. Give a short question with <br />teacher’s prediction student could <br />answer the question. Give continuous <br />reinforcement for them for every <br /> correct answer. <br />
- 16. And don’t forget…<br />Punishment for any unwanted <br />behavior in class during your lesson. If <br />not you are giving a negative <br />reinforcement.<br />
- 17. Conclusion<br />A teacher play an important role in this <br />perspective ( operant conditioning <br />theory) to make your class is live <br />forever and ever. <br />Because your students will response <br />depends from stimulus given by their <br /> teachers.<br />

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