Created By: Briana Lowry, EmilyMcPhail, Darlshawn Patterson,and Carly Reese
• The teaching theory that we would use would be a combination of Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura because these were the main people who influenced Behaviorism.
• 1849-1936• He is famous for behavioral experiments with dogs.• Won the Nobel Peace prize in psychology in 1904.• Taught dogs to salivate when the door bell rang.• Pavlov came up with classic conditioning. He would show food to the dogs and make them salivate and then ring a bell. Eventually, he got the dogs to salivate whenever he rang the bell and didn’t have any food.
• 1904-1990• Operant Conditioning – learning that is controlled and results in behavior through reinforcement.• Skinner worked with pigeons and rewarded them when he saw a behavior he liked. Eventually, a stimulus response pattern occurred and he was able to teach the pigeons to dance.• He believed that people shape their behavior based on the rewards or positive reinforcement.• Forms of computer based instruction and educational software are based on Skinner’s operant conditioning.
• 1925-• Social Learning = Social Cognitive Theory• Focused on those motivational factors and self-regulatory mechanisms that contribute to a person’s behavior, rather than environmental mechanisms, which separates us from Skinner. Self-efficacy – a personal a personal• Believes people acquire behaviors first observation about one’s perceived ability to from observation of others and then by feel, think, and motivate oneself to learn. using those observations to imitate Bandura began to analyze a person’s what they have observed. personality through interaction with• Several studies with commercials environment, behavior, and the person’s support this theory. psychological processes.• Observational modeling – is watching Imagery – he started to consider a person’s something and then mimicking the ability to retain info through images in the mind. observed behavior. At this point he stopped being a strict• Social learning has been applied behaviorist and began to join position of extensively in the context of behavior cognitivists. modification, which is used in training
• All behavior is motivated by external stimuli.• Behaviorists are true believers in extrinsic motivations.• There is no line between human and animal, because both learn and respond to stimuli.
• Controlled learning that results in shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus-responsive patterns.• When a behavior is rewarded, it is repeated. When a behavior is faced with negative consequences, it is not repeated.• Skinner experimented with pigeons and trained them to dance, by rewarding them every time they turned on cue.• Skinner also experimented on people, including his infant daughter.• Reinforcement is a powerful motivator.• Skinner believes that language development is based on operant conditioning.
• The natural reflex that occurs in response to a stimulus.• Pavlov conducted stimulus response experiments with dogs and he taught those dogs to salivate to the ringing of a food bell, even when no food was present.• He originally conducted his dog experiments to study digestion. It was other behaviorists that studied his work in terms of stimulus response.• Behaviorists believe there were human applications in these experiments.
• The motivational and self-regulating forces that dictate a person’s behavior, instead of just environmental influences.• People learn through observation and imitation.• It has been used in behavior modification.• Bandura is known for conducting the Bobo Doll experiment.
• What the teacher does under this • With the use of technology… theory? Teachers implement technology in lessonsTeachers create an environment in which and assignments to increase the desiredthe desired behavior is reinforced. effort and engagement of students. Examples: • Teachers may use short videos duringExamples: lessons and give a quiz afterward.• Teachers use flash cards to get student (Students are more likely to pay attention to memorized desired material. to the video.)• Teachers may give drills and practice • Teachers may give computer or web test and repeat and get students to based quizzes or activities that provide memorize desired material. instant feedback and explanations.• Teachers provide feedback, may give • Teachers may assign electronic drill and special privileges and good grades practice resources for homework of in when desired behavior occurs. class so students can practice skills and techniques necessary to achieve class• Teacher may ignore undesirable objectives. behavior. • Teachers may use word processing software, spreadsheets, and graphical representations of data to promote more
• What do students do under this theory?• React-Under behaviorism, students simply react to their environments.Much like Pavlovs dogs, students observe their environments,and react. Sometimes students will provide their own inputbefore a reaction will occur, such as answering a question, orattempting to imitate someone else. Either way, behaviorism isbased upon "action-reaction."• Reinforcement-Many software and hardware companies are designing productsto reinforce learning for younger students.-Students will be positively reinforced for good behavior, forexample, a good grade on a test means a students gets to go inthe prize box. This will make the student that does bad on thetest want to get a good grade on the next one so they can go inthe prize box too.
• The Textbook:• Shelly, Gary, Glenda Gunter, and Randolph Gunter. "Learning Theories and Educational Research." Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology in a Connected World. 7th ed. Boston, 2012. 257-80. Print.• Online:• http://www.learning-theories.com/category/behaviorist-theories• Seeing Behaviorism Everywhere, even New Educational Technology Integration Resources by Rebecca Green. Retrieved from: http://rebeccagreen.wordpress.com/2009/07/07/seeing- behaviorism-everywhere-even-new-educational-technology- integration-resources/