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Reconstruction Of The South Chap17

Reconstruction Of The South Chap17



Reconstruction after the Civil War

Reconstruction after the Civil War
Middle School American History
Grades 6-8



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    Reconstruction Of The South Chap17 Reconstruction Of The South Chap17 Presentation Transcript

    • Reconstruction of the South American History Chapter 17
    • The End Results
      • 258,000 Confederates died in the war
      • Most were adult males
      • South’s economy & society needed rebuilding
      • Civil War in Pictures
      • Reconstruction
    • Everybody had a plan …
      • Lincoln’s 10% plan
      • 10% of states voters vowed loyalty to Union
        • Form a new government & constitution
        • No slavery
    • Lincoln Was Soft on the South
      • Punishment served no useful purpose
      • Offered amnesty/swear loyalty
        • Not to Confederate leaders
      • Right to vote to African Americans
        • Educated or served in Union Army
      • Would force “equal rights” in Southern states
    • Some jumped in quick
      • Louisiana, Arkansas & Tennessee agreed in 1864
      • Lincoln’s congress refused to let it occur
    • Plan 2- Those Radical Republicans!
      • Thought Lincoln was too mild
      • Congress should decide the South’s fate
      • Refused to let the 10% plan work
    • The Wade-Davis Bill
      • July 1864
      • 50% swear loyalty to Union
      • Only males who never took arms against the North could vote on new state congress & constitution
      • Former Confederates – no public office
      • No slavery
      • Lincoln refused to sign this into law
    • Freedmen’s Bureau-What was life like for African Americans
      • Helped African Americans freed from slavery
      • Established- March 1865
      • Food, clothes, medical services
      • Established schools
      • Established universities
        • Howard, Atlanta, Fisk
      • Helped them acquire land
      • http://www.freedmensbureau.com/
    • Watch your back!
      • President Lincoln Assassinated
        • 5 days after Civil War ended
      • Ford’s Theater
      • John Wilkes Booth
      • “Your name is Mud”
    • Ford’s Theater
    • Lincoln Memorial
    • A New President
      • Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President
      • Not quite as “gentle” as Lincoln
      • Punishment in order
      • No desire to help African Americans
    • Johnson’s Plan
      • Restoration
      • Amnesty – swore an oath to the Union
      • High ranking officials had to do it personally
      • Appointed governors
      • Only pardoned, whites could vote
      • No equal rights for blacks, no voting
      • Left it up to individual states to “manage their freed people”
      • No slavery
      • Denounce secession
      • Ratify the 13 th Amendment
        • Abolished slavery
      • End of 1865 most of the South was “restored”
    • Whose Plan Was Right?
      • There were 3 plans
      • 10% Plan
      • Wade Davis Plan
      • The “Restoration”
      • Divide yourselves into 3 equal groups
      • What are the characteristics of each plan?
      • Defend your plan and the correct one
    • South “Restored” but not settled
      • Struggle in Washington D.C.
      • Congress did not want to readmit southern states on Johnson’s terms
        • felt it robbed the Union of it’s victory
        • treatment of African Americans not improving
      • Ku Klux Klan emerged
        • terrorized African Americans in the South– burning houses, churches, schools, rioting and murder
    • Black Codes
      • passed by southern states
      • aim to control freed men, women children
      • enable plantation owners to exploit them as workers
      • reincarnation of the “slave codes”
    • Examples of the Code– Slavery in Disguise
      • could be arrested for not having a job
      • forced to work for plantation owner to pay off the fine
      • some laws refused to let them own or rent farms
      • orphaned babies were taken as unpaid apprentices
    • Civil Rights Act of 1866-passed by Congress
      • full citizenship to African Americans
      • Federal government could intervene in state affairs
      • overturned black codes
      • contradicted the Dred Scott Case– African Americans were not citizens
    • President Johnson says no way!
      • Vetoes both the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Amendment
      • did not represent ALL states
      • Congress had enough votes to override
      • Rift between Congress and President grew
    • 14 th Amendment of 1866
      • Congress passed to ensure Civil Rights Act did not get overturned
      • Full citizenship to anyone born in the USA
      • No state could take away ones life, liberty or property without “due process”
      • all had “equal protection” of the laws
      • voting was granted only for men
        • white men
      • Southern states had to ratify it to gain entry to the Union
      • Only Tennessee ratified it
      • delayed adoption of amendment until 1868
    • New Players in Congress
      • Election time for Congress
      • Johnson rallied for rejection of Amendment from North and South
      • campaigned against the Republicans
      • Republicans gained control of congress
      • created their own “reconstruction plan”
    • Radical Reconstruction
      • Congress was in control
      • could override any veto that Johnson issued
      • 10 remaining states that did not accept 14 th amendment divided into 5 districts
        • under authority of a military commander
      • African American males allowed to vote
      • former Confederate leaders could not hold office
    • How to get back in…
      • ratify the 14 th amendment
      • submit new constitutions for approval
      • 2 nd Reconstruction Act– registered new voters and prepared states for new state constitutional conventions
    • Johnson and Congress Spar
      • Congress passed laws to limit the powers of the president
        • Tenure of Office Act
          • didn’t allow the President to remove government officials without Senate approval
        • Johnson tests the act
          • suspends the Secretary of War without approval
          • Appointed commanders to southern districts that congress opposed
    • Impeach, Impeach, Impeach
      • House of Representatives vote to impeach
      • accused him of misconduct
      • trial lasted 3 months
      • both sides argued back and forth saying it was just politically motivated
      • 35-19 to convict. 1 vote short of 2/3rds majority
    • New Election, New President
      • 1868 Gen. Ulysses S. Grant– Republican
      • Horatio Seymour– Democrat
      • Grant won; also received 500,000 African American votes in the South
    • 15 th Amendment– 1869
      • prohibited state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any MALE citizen because of race, color or previous condition of servitude
    • The South During Reconstruction
      • 3 groups in the South
        • African Americans
        • white Southerners– supported Republicans
        • white settlers from the North
    • Group 1– African Americans
      • important in politics
        • population– helped with Republican victories
        • held some positions in political office at state level
        • national level had more
          • Hiram Revels– senator
          • Blanche K Bruce
            • former runaway slave
            • established a school for African Americans
            • became superintendent of schools in MS
            • senator in US senate
    • Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
      • Not everyone got on the same page
      • Some southerners didn’t want to secede
      • agreed with Republicans of the North
        • non-slave holding farmers
        • businessmen
      • Called Scalawags
      • Northerners moved South to make a new life
        • called– Carpetbaggers
        • doctors, lawyers, teachers, former Union soldiers
    • Resistance to Reconstruction
      • Some white Southerners could not let go of old ways
        • wouldn’t let ex-slaves leave
        • refused to rent land to ex-slaves
        • stores refused to grant credit
        • employers would not hire them
        • used fear to keep them in line
    • Ku Klux Klan
      • formed in 1866
      • wore white sheets and hoods
      • “midnight rides”
      • Jackson county FL– 150 in 3 years
      • keep from voting
      • Hate Crimes
    • Some Improvements
      • Education
        • whites and African Americans
        • created their own schools
        • Freedmen’s bureau helped
        • teachers from North came South
        • by 1870 50% white kids and 40% African Americans in public school; segregated
      • Sharecropping
        • rented land; crude shack
        • seeds, tools, mule
        • % of crop back to landowner
        • not much left in the end
        • not much better than slavery
    • End of Reconstruction
      • Both sides growing weary; ready to move on
      • wanted “reconciliation”
      • Amnesty act– 1872 pardoned most Confederates
        • vote and hold office
        • changed the political balance– Democrats
    • Democrats take control
      • easily took control in white states
      • Ku Klux Klan helped gain democratic control in heavily African American populated states
    • Republicans had their own problems
      • scandals
      • top government officials
        • unfair business deals
        • accepting bribes
        • threatening to withhold tax money
        • vice-president; secretary of war
        • democrats won control of the house
    • Getting out while the getting is good…
      • 1876 election
      • Grant does not run for another term
      • Rutherford B. Hayes (R) vs. Samuel Tilden (D)
      • Tight election
        • 1 electoral vote (20 disputed votes)
        • commission– 7 from each party; 1 independent
        • Hayes wins
    • Compromise of 1877
      • deal made to settle election dispute
        • democrats wanted to fight the verdict
          • more aid to the region
          • withdraw troops from Southern states
          • Democrats will maintain African/American rights
    • Hayes: no friend to the African American
      • “…your rights and interests would be safer if this great mass of intelligent white men were left alone by the general government”
      • states would deal with the “African American” issue alone.
      • Reconstruction was over
    • More changes in the South; not all good
      • Democrats in control
      • Redeemers
        • save the south from republican rule
        • adopted conservative ways
        • stopped many social programs
          • schools
        • lowered taxes
        • less public spending
    • The South’s Economy
      • lags behind the nation
      • industrialization slow
      • Rise of “New South”
        • Henry Grady led the cause
        • coal, iron, tobacco, cotton, lumber
        • rise of textile mills; Northern companies moved south
        • James Duke developed the tobacco manufacturing
      • industry grew (not as fast as North)
      • workers worked hard, long hours
      • cheap wages
      • kids too
      • RR boom
    • A divided society
      • 15 th Amendment allowed African Americans the right to vote
      • Southern states looked for loop holes
        • poll tax– had to pay before you could vote
        • literacy test– read & explain constitution
        • grandfather clause– if father or grandfather voted before Reconstruction; didn’t have to pass literacy test
        • African American voting declined
    • Ending thoughts
      • Some good things occurred
      • Some not so good
      • for the African American
        • “ The slave went free, stood a brief moment in the sun then moved back again toward slavery.” W.E.B. Du Bois
    • Jim Crow Laws
      • 1890’s– segregation was prominent
      • Laws required separation in most public places
      • Plessy vs. Ferguson
        • separate section on train
        • access to public facilities = to whites
        • kept segregation in south for 50 years
        • were really not equal