Section 3 And 4 Chap 13

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Life before the civil war; events that lay the foundation to the war

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Section 3 And 4 Chap 13

  1. 1. Section 3 Southern Cotton Kingdom
  2. 2. Where ya’ll from…. <ul><li>Upper South </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland, Virginia, </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina </li></ul>
  3. 3. Deep South <ul><li>Georgia, </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Alabama, Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana, Missouri </li></ul><ul><li>Arkansas </li></ul><ul><li>Texas </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rise of the Cotton Kingdom <ul><li>Tobacco had once been the cash crop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial times in Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depended on foreign markets, not $ stable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stripped land of its nutrients, wearing it out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Carolina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produced rice and indigo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depended on foreign markets, not $ stable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t be grown in dry, inland climates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sugarcane- “Rich man’s crop” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grown in southeastern Louisiana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers invested $$ in irrigation canals and machinery </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Cotton Gin <ul><li>Cotton demand was increasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is difficult to process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers must separate plants “sticky” seeds from cotton fibers. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cotton Gin
  7. 7. Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin Causes and Effects <ul><li>Invented in 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: Machine that separated the seed from the fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Effect: dramatically increased amount of cotton that could be processed by 50 to 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: Processed cotton so quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Effect: Farmers wanted more cotton planted </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: Increase in field size and production </li></ul><ul><li>Effect: More slave labor was needed </li></ul>
  8. 8. New land for cotton <ul><li>Because of the Native American Removal Act, cotton production expanded in deep south </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alabama, Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate was good for cotton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller farmers could make $ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t have to own a gin, could rent it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could rent slaves from slaveholders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger plantations made money too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery was a big part of plantation life </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS4OxoebcSQ </li></ul>
  10. 10. Them Ol’ Cotton Fields back home …. The fields...
  11. 11. Cotton Rules the Deep South <ul><li>Large demand for cotton in Great Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept prices up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upper South and Deep South were economically different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both still agricultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper south produces tobacco,hemp,wheat and veggies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became the center for the sale and transport of enslaved people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep South produces cotton and some rice and sugarcane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enslaved people played a key role in the cotton producing business </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Industry’s Leading Role <ul><li>South prospered economically from 1820-1860 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stayed rural, not like the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactured very little compared to North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produced fewer goods then entire state of Massachusetts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Why just cotton? <ul><li>Cotton was booming! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of capital (money to invest in business) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$ tied up in land and slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would have to sell slaves to start business </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not willing to do it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market for manufactured goods low in South compared to the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large population in South were slaves with no money who could not buy goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They really didn’t want business there </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Southern Factories <ul><li>Some southerners wanted develop industry in the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought they relied too much on the North for manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Said factories would revive upper South economy which was lagging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>William Gregg-Merchant from Charleston, S. Carolina;opened a textile mill there, modeling those from New England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Reid Anderson turned Tredegar Iron Works into nation’s leading producers of iron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the war he supplied artillery and other iron products to the Southern forces </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Southern Transportation <ul><li>Natural waterways were primary means for transporting goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most towns located on waterways:seacoast or rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads were poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not experience the RR boom like the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connections were short; no real network established </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern cities grew slower than their Northern counterpart because of this </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of the nation’s RR was located in the South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This would have a negative effect during the war </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Section 4 <ul><li>The South’s People </li></ul>
  17. 17. Terms to Know <ul><li>Yeoman </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant farmer </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed cost </li></ul><ul><li>Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Overseer </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual </li></ul><ul><li>Slave code </li></ul>
  18. 18. The “Glorious South” <ul><li>Novels and films glamorized the “deep South” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich, white slaveholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stately mansions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small farmers without slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planters with a few slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handful of planters had several slaves and fancy “mansions” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Categories of Southerners <ul><li>Yeomen </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant farmers </li></ul><ul><li>The rural poor </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation owners </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Tenant farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rented land on other’s estates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rural Poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in crude cabins in wooded areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew gardens, kept a few farm animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunted and fished for food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All of the poor in the South were independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to take any job that resembled slave work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural poor were proud of being self-sufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looked down upon by other Whites </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Yeomen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest group of whites in the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly lived in upper South/hilly rural areas of deep South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50-200 acre farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops were for self and sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded crops to locals for goods/services </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Plantations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover several thousand acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in comfortable, not luxurious farmhouses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured wealth by the number of slaves owned and possessions like homes, clothes, furniture etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12% of plantation owners held more than ½ of all the slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ of planters held fewer than 5 slaves </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Life on a Plantation The Movie <ul><li>“ Oh, Rhett, Rhett, I’ll just think about it tomorrow”—Gone with the Wind </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Main goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earn money/profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed costs-regular expenses- stayed same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining gin, machinery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Market varies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Price for cotton changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sold it to agents in New Orleans, Charleston for best price-Cotton Exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agents extend credit (loan) to planters to hold cotton until prices rose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planters stayed in debt, not paid until cotton sold </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Woman’s Role <ul><li>Plantation wives were in charge of the enslaved workers in her home </li></ul><ul><li>Tended to the sick slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Supervising plantation buildings, fruit/veggie gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Some kept financial records </li></ul><ul><li>Spent much of the time alone </li></ul>
  27. 27. Workin’ on the Plantation <ul><li>Needed different types of workers </li></ul><ul><li>Enslaved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning, cooking, laundry, sewing, serving meals—domestic slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacksmiths, carpenters, shoemakers, weavers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm hands, pastures, farm animals etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field hands—planting, cultivating, picking cotton; supervised by an overseer (plantation manager) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Life Under Slavery <ul><li>Worked hard, earned no money, little hope of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think was their biggest fear? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being sold to another planter and being separated from family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to make what they could of a family life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looked forward to the day they would be free </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Enslaved Workers <ul><li>Up before dawn, back after the sun came down </li></ul><ul><li>Men as well as women did heavy work </li></ul><ul><li>Children carried water to the fields </li></ul><ul><li>At age 10, they began work in the fields </li></ul><ul><li>At age 60, they were given lighter work or cared for the kids </li></ul>
  30. 35. Home, Sweet, Home Life in the Slave Cabins <ul><li>“ We lodged in log huts and on the bare ground. Wooden floors were an unknown luxury. In a single room were huddled, like cattle, ten or a dozen person, men, women, and children . . . Our beds were collections of straw and old rags, thrown down in the corners and boxed in with boards, a single blanket the only covering . . . The wind whistled and the rain and snow blew in through the cracks, and the damp earth soaked in the moisture till the floor was [filthy] as a pigsty”—Josiah Henson, escaped slave </li></ul>
  31. 37. Pass the steak please, don’t think so! <ul><li>Diet consisted of cornmeal, pork fat and molasses </li></ul><ul><li>Did have their own gardens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew yams and greens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not have a balanced diet </li></ul></ul>
  32. 38. Family Life as a Slave <ul><li>No laws protecting slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Husband or wife could be sold at any time </li></ul><ul><li>Death of slaveholder could split up a family </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage not recognized by law, married anyway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marriage vow included “till death or separation do us part” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established networks of relatives/friends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Care for each other’s children in case of separation </li></ul></ul>
  33. 39. A Slave Wedding
  34. 40. Imagine <ul><li>How would your life change if you were forced to move to say … India? </li></ul>
  35. 41. African American Culture <ul><li>Had to fuse their African culture with American culture to make a new culture </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of African American Culture came from children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1808 slave trade was banned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery still legal in South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1860 almost all slaves had been born in America </li></ul></ul>
  36. 42. Audio interview with a former slave <ul><li>http://memory.loc.gov/service/afc/afc9999001/5091b.mp3 </li></ul><ul><li>Alice Gaston </li></ul>
  37. 43. <ul><li>American born slaves retained African customs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practiced African music and dance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed folk stories to children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some accepted Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some kept to their ancestors beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrapped their heads in colorful cloths in African style </li></ul></ul>
  38. 47. African American Christianity <ul><li>Christianity became their hope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayed for the day they would be free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed themselves through “spirituals” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined Christian faith with laments about suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also allowed them to communicate with one another </li></ul></ul>
  39. 48. http://youtube.com/watch?v=bfaAsU7J81k <ul><li>Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home, Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home. </li></ul><ul><li>I looked over Jordan, and what did I see? Coming for to carry me home, A band of angels coming after me, Coming for to carry me home. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain </li></ul><ul><li>If you get there before I do, Coming for to carry me home, Tell all my friends I’m coming, too. Coming for to carry me home. </li></ul>
  40. 49. Slave Codes <ul><li>Laws that controlled the slaves </li></ul><ul><li>1830-1860 laws became more severe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owners were afraid of slave rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited slaves from gathering in large groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not leave their master’s property without a written pass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime to teach a slave to read and write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thought they were less likely to rebel if illiterate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 51. Resistance to Slavery <ul><li>Some rebelled openly to their masters </li></ul><ul><li>Nat Turner—Religious leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-taught reader and writer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1831 led group of followers on deadly rampage; Southampton County, VA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Killed 55 whites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turner was hung </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scared white Southerners, led to stricter codes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 52. Nat Turner
  43. 53. <ul><li>Other ways to resist slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretending to be ill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting fire to a plantation building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did this to endure their lives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Way of striking back that whites would prevent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 55. Escaping Slavery <ul><li>Some tried to escape; with success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaping from the upper south was easier than the deep south </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Underground Railroad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of safe houses owned by free blacks and whites who opposed slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some ran away simply to find family, not headed north </li></ul></ul>
  45. 56. Frederick Douglas Harriet Tubman
  46. 57. Harriet Tubman
  47. 58. Underground Railroad
  48. 59. Review

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