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Chapter 11 The Greek Culture


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Chapter 11 The Greek Culture

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Greek Culture
  2. 2. Section 1- Religious Practices <ul><li>god written lower case </li></ul><ul><li>god’s and goddess’ lived on Mount Olympus. </li></ul><ul><li>No single Greek Religion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Each City/State had its own god Officials of Polis In charge of feasts and sacrifices
  4. 4. 12 major gods and goddesses – each had a specific duty Honor gods at festivals Temple was the god’s home; worship outside Built temples to honor them Belief in self-worth approached gods with dignity Peoples duty to obey and serve them GODS
  5. 5. Priests & priestess went to them for advise Usually a riddle Could mean more than 1 thing Gave out prophecy about future oracles
  6. 6. Olympics Olympics Held in Olympia Honored Zeus Greeks stopped Fighting during The games Each 4 years in The summer 40 ft gold and ivory Statue stood in One of the temples (torch) Group of temples/arenas Built in fields (Olympic village) Festival called The Olympic games Had to pay $$ if You didn’t— Spartans didn’t During war with Athens Athletes from Greece And Greek colonies In Africa, Italy & Asia Minor Must swear an oath To Zeus to follow All rules or pay fines Competed as Individuals not teams No women compete Or watch Events: Chariot races at The hippodrome (oval, 9 mile track) Boxing/Wrestling: Slapped each other; Raised finger to Give up. No rules Except could not Bite or gouge out eyes Pentathlon— 5 events Winner receives a Crown made of olive Leaves and free Meals for a year Considered heroes; Poets wrote about Them. Told their Stories during The festivals Parade for the winners Poets read Their works Between Events. Historians dated Events by Olympics. Herodotus wrote About the Persian Wars. Considered Father of history
  7. 7. The Theater <ul><li>Grew out of festivals </li></ul><ul><li>Honor the god—Dionysus </li></ul><ul><li>Ionians began telling stories about Dionysus </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus chanted/danced each story to music </li></ul><ul><li>certain points a soliloquy given </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Chorus became shorter—speaking longer </li></ul><ul><li>storylines developed about other gods, events </li></ul><ul><li>began acting out the stories instead of singing </li></ul><ul><li>Aeschylus- added new characters- became a play </li></ul>
  9. 9. Two types of plays <ul><li>Tragedies- stories about suffering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dealt with the past and with the relationships between people and gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not all were bad endings, but all dealt human suffering and their ability to carry on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 tragic writers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Comedies—a play with a happy ending </li></ul><ul><li>plays about the present </li></ul><ul><li>made fun of politicians, sons who wasted their parents money, enslaved people plotting against their masters etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Comedy writers— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristophanes—thought everything was funny </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Lights, camera, action! <ul><li>Actors wore a huge canvas/plastic type mask </li></ul><ul><li>Mask represent the mood, age, and sex of the character </li></ul><ul><li>mouth shaped like a funnel to carry sound (1 st microphone) </li></ul><ul><li>wore heavy padding under robes, thick shoes to make them look bigger than they were </li></ul><ul><li>Only men were allowed to act. Women could only watch </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Venue <ul><li>Plays were performed in an open air theater </li></ul><ul><li>no one turned away from the door, paid if you could </li></ul><ul><li>sat on stone benches on a side of a hill in a semi circle </li></ul><ul><li>support of theater was public responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>plays were judged at each festival </li></ul>
  13. 14. Section 2 Science in Greek Times
  14. 15. How smart are you? <ul><li>Greeks were warriors which took muscle! </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks also place great importance on </li></ul><ul><li>intellect </li></ul>
  15. 16. Key Vocabulary <ul><li>1. annus- year </li></ul><ul><li>2. ante- before </li></ul><ul><li>3. aqua- water </li></ul><ul><li>4. astron- star </li></ul><ul><li>5. bi- two </li></ul><ul><li>6. bios- life </li></ul><ul><li>7. centrum- hundred </li></ul><ul><li>8. dico, dictum- say, thing said </li></ul><ul><li>9. duo- two </li></ul><ul><li>10. ge- earth </li></ul><ul><li>11. hydor- water </li></ul><ul><li>12. magnus- large, great </li></ul><ul><li>13. mega- large, great </li></ul><ul><li>14. mikros- small </li></ul><ul><li>15. minus- smaller </li></ul><ul><li>16. monos- single </li></ul><ul><li>17. omnis- all </li></ul><ul><li>18. phileo- to love </li></ul><ul><li>19. phone- sound, voice </li></ul><ul><li>20. photo- light </li></ul><ul><li>21. poly- many </li></ul><ul><li>22. post- after </li></ul><ul><li>23. pre- before </li></ul><ul><li>24. primus- first </li></ul><ul><li>25. protos- first </li></ul><ul><li>26. psyche- soul, mind </li></ul><ul><li>27. quartus- fourth </li></ul><ul><li>28. tele- at a distance </li></ul><ul><li>29. thermos- heat </li></ul><ul><li>30. tri- three </li></ul><ul><li>31. unus- one </li></ul><ul><li>32. video, visum- see, seen </li></ul><ul><li>33. vita- life </li></ul>
  16. 17. What is intellect? <ul><li>The ability to learn and reason </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks thought your intellect should be used to its fullest. No half-brainers! </li></ul><ul><li>Studying laws of nature and loving wisdom were the same thing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>philosophia </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. What do we call it today <ul><li>People who study knowledge are called? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People who study wisdom are called? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much of our science and philosophy today is based on the thoughts of the Greeks </li></ul>
  18. 19. Socrates <ul><li>A great philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>399 B.C. was on trial </li></ul><ul><li>Was 70 years old </li></ul><ul><li>From Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in the thinking process </li></ul><ul><li>Gave up his private business & spent his life searching for “the truth” </li></ul><ul><li>Believed truth could be found if you could think </li></ul>
  19. 20. Socrates Con’t <ul><li>Walked through Athens trying to teach people how to think </li></ul><ul><li>He asked people questions designed to make people come to a conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the Socratic Method </li></ul>
  20. 21. Example of Socratic Method <ul><li>I feel so stupid </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you feel stupid? </li></ul><ul><li>Because I failed the test and I studied. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think you failed the test? </li></ul><ul><li>Because the teacher doesn’t like me </li></ul><ul><li>Do you really think that is true? </li></ul><ul><li>No, not really. </li></ul><ul><li>Did you study hard for the test? </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Yeah, kinda, sorta </li></ul><ul><li>What does that mean? </li></ul><ul><li>I was watching High School Musical II while I was studying. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that may have had an influence on your grade? </li></ul><ul><li>Probably </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think you failed the test now? </li></ul><ul><li>Because I didn’t study thoroughly enough because I was watching TV. It’s all Zach’s fault! </li></ul>
  22. 23. You Try! <ul><li>Possible situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t get out of bed in the morning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t like to do homework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always late for school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mom won’t buy me $150 jeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church is boring </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Socrates Con’t <ul><li>Some liked his teachings, some didn’t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some liked it because they learned how to think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others didn’t because is showed their flaws and mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After a while he was considered to big of a threat in Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused of denying the gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupting the young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to overthrow the government </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. The Trial of Socrates <ul><li>Tried before 500 citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Defended himself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke about truth and goodness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wealth does not bring goodness. But goodness brings wealth and every blessing, both to the citizen and to the polis” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would not change his beliefs to save his life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found guilty and sentenced to death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to drink poisonous hemlock juice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athenians later regretted executing him and put up a bronze statue in his honor </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Plato <ul><li>Socrates left no writings </li></ul><ul><li>Everything we know we know from Plato, his student </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian aristocrat </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded his speeches before Socrates’ death </li></ul><ul><li>30 years old at death of Socrates </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to be a politician </li></ul>
  26. 27. Plato con’t <ul><li>399 B.C. changed his mind; traveled to Egypt and Italy for 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to Greece and set up a school near Athens in the sacred grove of the hero Academus (sound familiar) </li></ul><ul><li>Called the Academy </li></ul><ul><li>He taught for 40 years, school itself lasted for almost 900 years </li></ul>
  27. 28. Plato’s Beliefs <ul><li>Wrote down his ideas in a book called The Republic- 1 st book ever written on political science-(study of government) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in order </li></ul><ul><li>Political liberty was disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Only wise and good should rule </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in the truth, had to search long for it </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote The Dialogues- a series of discussions with Socrates as the leading speaker talking with different people about things like truth and loyalty (like practice conversations; self help books) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Aristotle <ul><li>Plato’s brightest pupil </li></ul><ul><li>Came to the Academy at the age of 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Stayed for 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Called the “master of them that know” </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in using ones senses to discover the laws that govern the world </li></ul><ul><li>1 st to classify (group together) plants and animals that resemble each other- still use it today </li></ul>
  29. 30. Classification <ul><li>Helps scientist handle lots of information in an orderly way. </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Classification of a Cockroach! <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum Anthropoda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class Insecta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order Blattaria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family Blattidae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>species Periplanta Americana </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Scientific Method <ul><li>Greek scientist Thales of Miletus developed 1 st two steps of the method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st he collected information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on what he collected, he formed a hypothesis (we can thank him for the invention of science projects!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristotle came up with the 3 rd step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothesis must be tested to see if it is correct </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. If I Only Had A Brain. . .
  33. 34. That just doesn’t seem logical? <ul><li>Ever ponder something and realize it just doesn’t make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>You are using logic: the science of reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle developed a process of reason called syllogism </li></ul>
  34. 35. What is Syllogism? I’m glad you asked. <ul><li>Method of reasoning that uses 3 related statements. The 3 rd statement is a conclusion based on the 1 st two statements. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I didn’t pay attention in class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I failed my test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, lack of paying attention made me fail my test </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Is This A Syllogism? <ul><li>Mrs. Cuevas is a great teacher </li></ul><ul><li>She is a great person </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, she is the greatest teacher in the world! </li></ul><ul><li>BE CAREFUL HOW YOU ANSWER THIS! </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Now it’s your turn! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, 3 related statements; the 3 rd one is the conclusion </li></ul>
  37. 38. Discoveries and Inventions <ul><li>Greek scientists weren’t looking for ways to make life better, just wanted to see what made it “tick” and add to their own knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t have equipment like telescopes, microscopes, small scales etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did make great discoveries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered that natural events were not caused by the way the gods behaved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World is governed by natural law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look on page 189 for a list of scientists/fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Predicted an eclipse of the sun in 585 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocrates considered the “father of medicine” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled throughout Greece diagnosing, curing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed disease comes from natural causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people thought it came from evil spirits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made a list of rules about how doctors should use their skills on patients-Hippocratic Oath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honor their teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do their best for the sick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never give poisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep patients secrets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Now don’t you feel a whole lot smarter! </li></ul>