Social History Overview
In the beginning…were there women? <ul><li>Chesapeake- 1/4 of indentured servants were female </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer...
Republican Motherhood <ul><li>Post Revolution idea- marriage not being ruled by a king-like husband, but is consensual and...
Reform Movements <ul><li>Great Awakening speaks to women as the spiritual guardians of husbands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repu...
Post-Civil War Roles <ul><li>Growth of educational institutions for women leads to generation of politically active women ...
Suffrage Movement <ul><li>15th Amendment- protection of male voting rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western States are the fi...
World War I through WWII <ul><li>Right to vote did little to change condition for women- adopted views of men in family </...
1950’s/Rise of Women’s Liberation <ul><li>Women’s Roles perpetuated by Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity to middle ...
Anti-Feminism <ul><li>Phylis Schafly </li></ul><ul><li>New Right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Abortion, traditional gender r...
African Arrival <ul><li>1619: Arrival as indentured servants </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery moved to in Chesapeake with slowing...
Defacto to Dejure <ul><li>Defacto: In Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishments are for life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Bacon’s Rebellion <ul><li>Social conflict between the classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piedmont v. Tidewater </li></ul></ul><...
Comparison of Regions <ul><li>Slavery in New England/Middle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from IS to slave </li></ul></ul><u...
Africans in the Revolutionary War <ul><li>Abolition of slavery/trade left out of Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul...
Slavery Post-Revolutionary War <ul><li>Emancipation-1777 in Vermont, NH 1783, 1783 in Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual Emanc...
Slave Revolts! <ul><li>1738-Stono Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>1800- Gabriel Prosser </li></ul><ul><li>1822- Denmark Vessey...
Abolition Movements <ul><li>Created and grew in the 1830’s and 40’s </li></ul><ul><li>American Colonization Society </li><...
Justifications <ul><li>Paternalism- slaves are children who need strict controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes slaves seem w...
Emancipation <ul><li>Why not sooner? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to keep border states, Northern public opinion in favor of...
Reconstruction <ul><li>14th Amend: All persons born or naturalized are citizens, states must provide equal protection of l...
Post-Reconstruction <ul><li>Civil Rights Cases-1883: Congress cannot make laws against discrimination by individuals (priv...
1920’s, 1930’s and 1940’s <ul><li>Growth of pride in culture, still public officials will not guarantee rights or anti-lyn...
Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Desegregation of Armed Forces by Truman </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board: separate is inhere...
Native American Comparisons <ul><li>1/3 of NA population was on East Coast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent settlements, fa...
Initial Contact <ul><li>Decimation of NA’s by European Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbian Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul...
NA Revolts <ul><li>NA revolts leads to growth of distrust and animosity between NA’s and whites </li></ul><ul><li>Opech 16...
During Colonial Wars <ul><li>Distrust continues to grow as NA’s continually side against colonists in wars </li></ul><ul><...
Early NA Policy <ul><li>British supplying NA with supplies for attack on American frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Fal...
Removal <ul><li>Despite the “civilization” of tribes, esp. Cherokee, NA policy shifts to removal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seq...
Indian Wars Timeline <ul><li>Treaty of Laramie 1851-reservation system adopted- boundaries not adhered to by NA’s </li></u...
1920’s through 1940’s <ul><li>1924: citizenship to all NA’s, whether or not they complied with Dawes Act </li></ul><ul><li...
1960’s <ul><li>Rise of NA movement- because of movement to the cities, identity formed across tribal lines, protect cultur...
Push Pull Factors <ul><li>Push </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic factors </l...
Colonial Immigration <ul><li>Population grows ten times from 1700-1770 </li></ul><ul><li>England- by 1770, less than 1/2 o...
Early 1800’s immigration <ul><li>85% of all immigrants pre-1880 are from West and North Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Germans-s...
“ New” Immigrants <ul><li>Southern and Eastern Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of all immigrants by 1896 </li></ul></ul>...
Post WWII Immigration <ul><li>McCarren-Walter Act 1952- ends ban on Asian immigration, maintained Quota System </li></ul><...
<ul><li>“ Slavery was the dominating reality of all Southern Life.” Assess the Validity  for 2 of the following aspects of...
<ul><li>How were the lives of the Plains Indians in the second half of the nineteenth century affected by technological de...
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APUSH Social History

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  • WTCU: 1879
  • Slavery abolished in Mass because of judicial decsions because Constitution of Mass says “all men are born free and equal”
  • Freedmen- destitute? No! able to get some property, but voting rights were more difficult to come by, usually only if owned property Garrison- split because he advocated women’s rights and pacifism
  • CR Cases includes privately owned businesses
  • Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson Protest segregation in public places (sit-ins)
  • Chief Joseph- unsuccessful tried to lead the Nez Perce to Canada A Century of Dishonor- Wrongs of federal govt against the NA’s Dawes Act- assimilation! Second Sioux War: Caues- extension of RR, Gold in Black Hills, Corruption in Dept of Interior, Migration of settlers
  • Reservations are segregation, terminate tribal reservations, compensate and help relocate to city help assimilate to culture of America
  • APUSH Social History

    1. 1. Social History Overview
    2. 2. In the beginning…were there women? <ul><li>Chesapeake- 1/4 of indentured servants were female </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer indentures for pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New England- came as part of family units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anne Hutchinson: challenged role of women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daughters of Liberty: more public role with spinning bees and compliance to non-consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Coverture- lack of political or economic identity (this identity is through their husbands/fathers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control of property, wages, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Remember the Ladies”- Abigail Adams </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Republican Motherhood <ul><li>Post Revolution idea- marriage not being ruled by a king-like husband, but is consensual and based on affection </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>:Woman’s role: support republic by raising republican children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1790-1820: surge in ed for women with 400 academies open </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Change bc necessity of women in the Revolution era- D of L </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women got a taste of rights and political action with the Revolution, even though men weren’t ready for women rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Still Coverture: wages of young unmarried women to fathers! </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion of Republican Motherhood: increasingly public/political role, but that role is within the confines of the traditional mother and wife sphere </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men influence in the public sphere, women in the private sphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cult of Domesticity- clearly defined roles: idealized women as moral leaders and educators </li></ul>
    4. 4. Reform Movements <ul><li>Great Awakening speaks to women as the spiritual guardians of husbands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican Motherhood/Cult of Domesticity helps! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work in public sphere to gain acceptance for reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperance Movement- must fix the sin of their husbands! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dorothea Dix- mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>Grimke Sisters (Abolition) </li></ul><ul><li>Seneca Falls- Stanton, Mott </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resentment of being left out of abolition movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of Sentiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal voting, property and legal rights </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Post-Civil War Roles <ul><li>Growth of educational institutions for women leads to generation of politically active women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oberlin College is first to admit women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women’s Christian Temperance Union-Frances Willard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political action grows with involvement! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane Addams and settlement houses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater support of suffrage movement post Civil War with 15th Amendment passed </li></ul><ul><li>Radical theories on women’s roles also during this era of the politically active white, middle class woman </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emma Goldman- Russian Anarchist Immigrant who challenged marriage in general (Deported in Red Scare) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charlotte Perkins Gilman- Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relations Between Men and Woman as a Factor in Social Evolution (1898) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>women should not be happy with being reliant on men! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Suffrage Movement <ul><li>15th Amendment- protection of male voting rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western States are the first!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jeanette Rankin (elected 1916)- Montana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>National American Women’s Suffrage Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrie Catt, Susan B. Anthony- work within the confines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vote/action protects the home, which is the role of the woman, empower women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Women’s Party- constitutional amendment from Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice Paul- more radical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>19th Amendment- women’s role in WWI </li></ul>
    7. 7. World War I through WWII <ul><li>Right to vote did little to change condition for women- adopted views of men in family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ERA does not pass, traditional roles stay, lower pay in mostly service jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flapper movement </li></ul><ul><li>Sanger- sexual freedom/ revolution in morals </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Perkins- first female cabinet member </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s roles in war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower pay than men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosie the Riveter </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 1950’s/Rise of Women’s Liberation <ul><li>Women’s Roles perpetuated by Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity to middle class ideal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presidential Commission on the Status of Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>report on gender discrim. in employment opps and wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential order to eliminate gender discrim. in federal civil service system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal Pay Act of 1963- federal crime to pay women lower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Betty Friedan, Feminine Mystique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Organization of Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ms. Magazine- Gloria Steinem (1972) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Feminism- focus on child-care, parenting, abortion by young white women who participated in CR’s/anti-war movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ERA- 1972 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roe v. Wade- 1973 </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Anti-Feminism <ul><li>Phylis Schafly </li></ul><ul><li>New Right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Abortion, traditional gender roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ERA- passage blocked </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan’s cabinet: three women appointed </li></ul><ul><li>Sandra Day O’Connor </li></ul>
    10. 10. African Arrival <ul><li>1619: Arrival as indentured servants </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery moved to in Chesapeake with slowing of European IS’s, Bacon’s Rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction between races until slavery-Katherine Watkins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavery present in Southern colonies from the beginning- Carolinas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves from Barbados </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always not enough labor for the amount of land to work! </li></ul><ul><li>Effect: slave system is embedded in culture of the Chesapeake and Southern colonies </li></ul>
    11. 11. Defacto to Dejure <ul><li>Defacto: In Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishments are for life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthony in “Africans in America” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dejure: In Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1680’s, law across Chesapeake and Southern colonies of slavery for Africans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push for conformity in systems between Chesa and Southern colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery grows very quickly post Bacon’s Rebellion! </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Bacon’s Rebellion <ul><li>Social conflict between the classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piedmont v. Tidewater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grandees need permanent labor force to cut down on class conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Former IS’s are discontented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turns conflict into race conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Now low class has someone below them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common ground with grandees </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Comparison of Regions <ul><li>Slavery in New England/Middle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from IS to slave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated to work in stores or on docks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion leads to better treatment (no slaves for Quakers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavery in Chesapeake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from indentured servant to slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 of every 8 people is a slave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavery in Southern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imported to colonies as slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves outnumber whites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work plantations </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Africans in the Revolutionary War <ul><li>Abolition of slavery/trade left out of Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation: Promised freedom if they join British fight by in VA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes VA to move in favor of independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5,000 fight for Colonists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly freedmen from North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Lee- Washington’s aid on battle trail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promised freedom after war </li></ul>
    15. 15. Slavery Post-Revolutionary War <ul><li>Emancipation-1777 in Vermont, NH 1783, 1783 in Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual Emancipation- Penn 1780, RI, Conn in 1784, NY 1799, NJ 1804 </li></ul><ul><li>Slave issue silenced in Congress by tabling of slavery petitions at start of each session-Post Missouri Comp </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton is King: Cotton Gin invention by Eli Whitney in 1793 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery is essential to cash crop of the century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AJ bans anti-slavery literature from being sent in US Mail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will not annex Texas: Attempting to keep slavery from becoming a bigger issue </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Slave Revolts! <ul><li>1738-Stono Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>1800- Gabriel Prosser </li></ul><ul><li>1822- Denmark Vessey </li></ul><ul><li>1831- Nat Turner </li></ul><ul><li>Effect: stricter controls on slaves in Chesapeake! </li></ul>
    17. 17. Abolition Movements <ul><li>Created and grew in the 1830’s and 40’s </li></ul><ul><li>American Colonization Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back to Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberia founded by American slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Anti-Slavery Society- Radical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Lloyd Garrison- The Liberator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate abolition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberty Party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political action: James Birney as Pres in 1840, 1844 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedmen work for abolition! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sojouner Truth, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free-Soilers- slavery can remain but not expand </li></ul>
    18. 18. Justifications <ul><li>Paternalism- slaves are children who need strict controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes slaves seem well cared for and loved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic- helps all regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves have it better than wage laborers in free labor system of North! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners fear loss of jobs to former slaves if abolished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious- justified in the Bible </li></ul>
    19. 19. Emancipation <ul><li>Why not sooner? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to keep border states, Northern public opinion in favor of slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects on Civil War? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frees slaves only in states in rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GB will not support Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not free the slaves immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13th Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher purpose for the Union (immediate!) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Reconstruction <ul><li>14th Amend: All persons born or naturalized are citizens, states must provide equal protection of laws and due process </li></ul><ul><li>15th Amend: Vote cannot be denied bc of race, color or previous condition of servitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of AA Legislators (moderate, educated property holders) in South (help of Reconstruction Acts 1867) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedman’s Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>CR Act 1866: All AA’s are citizens </li></ul><ul><li>CR Act of 1875: equal accomodations in public places, AA cannot be excluded from Juries </li></ul><ul><li>KKK: Response to rise of AA in Southern political life </li></ul><ul><li>Black Codes- State laws to keep formers slave in condition of servitude </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughterhouse Cases- Enforcement of laws goes to states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few protections to AA’s from Reconstruction are upheld! </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Post-Reconstruction <ul><li>Civil Rights Cases-1883: Congress cannot make laws against discrimination by individuals (private businesses) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Crow Laws- segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration North to get away from discrimination and economic opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loss of Civil Rights- Literacy test, poll tax, grandfather clause </li></ul><ul><li>Booker- economic advancement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuskegee Institute- job training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlanta Compromise- Stay socially separate, focus on economic benefits first- Plessy v. Ferguson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DuBois- CR are needed before economic advancement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Niagra Movement- planned program of protest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAACP- gain rights/integration through political and legal action! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation of National Association of Colored Women-Ida B. Wells </li></ul>
    22. 22. 1920’s, 1930’s and 1940’s <ul><li>Growth of pride in culture, still public officials will not guarantee rights or anti-lynching </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Garvey- Black nationalism/separation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United Negro Improvement Assoc.- Pride!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-to-Africa movement- critized by DuBois </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Migration- 500,000 from 1915-1920 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% live in Northern cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination in cities on the rise! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harlem Renaissance- cultural rebirth (artists/literary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jazz- Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writers- Langston Hughes, Nora Hurston Zeale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Depression- little help, white males hired first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet Members: Mary McLoud Bethume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World War II- Double-V Campaign! </li></ul>
    23. 23. Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Desegregation of Armed Forces by Truman </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board: separate is inherently unequal </li></ul><ul><li>Montegomery Bus Boycott 1955 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIA Created-headed by MLK, Jr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive resistance and non-violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCLC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little Rock 1957: Ike used national guard to uphold federal power (not bc he wanted CR’s!) </li></ul><ul><li>Sit-ins 1960: SNCC- Movement goes to the students! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining greater momentum and visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March on Washington 1963- “I Have A Dream” </li></ul><ul><li>CR Act 1964, Voting Rights Act 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Black Nationalism/Splintering of movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malcolm X and Black Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stokley Carmichael and Black Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huey Newton and Black Panther Party for Self-Defense </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Native American Comparisons <ul><li>1/3 of NA population was on East Coast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent settlements, farm, fish, hunt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algonquin, Cherokee, Iroquois, Seneca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1/4 of NA population was in Great Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffalo, nomadic, warriors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sioux, Cheyenne </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalizations: Great Spirit, land was not for owning, trading routes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>What problems might these differences cause in the 1800’s? </li></ul>
    25. 25. Initial Contact <ul><li>Decimation of NA’s by European Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbian Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No unified response by very different tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animosity in Chesapeake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition over land and supremacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation that NA’s will be workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truce with Powhatan means coexistence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help in NE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught Separatists farming principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization: NA’s and British settlers were at odds because of a lack of cultural understanding, superiority complex, land use, attempted forced servitude </li></ul>
    26. 26. NA Revolts <ul><li>NA revolts leads to growth of distrust and animosity between NA’s and whites </li></ul><ul><li>Opech 1622- attack by warlike brother after death of Powhatan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of settlers killed (surprise attack) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English retaliate, become more powerful than NA’s for first time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NA’s viewed as perpetual enemy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King Phillip’s War 1675-1676- attack after continual encroachment on tribal lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 settlements completely destroyed in Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterattack and scorched earth end NA attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distrust, hatred and destroyed land </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. During Colonial Wars <ul><li>Distrust continues to grow as NA’s continually side against colonists in wars </li></ul><ul><li>NA’s joined the side they believe would give them the most rights to land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French during F and I War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British during Rev War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pontiac’s Rebellion- attack by Ottawa chief which kills 3,000 settlers as they rush into newly won Ohio River Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Went with British during Rev War because the colonists were the ones trying to take land! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proclamation Line 1763 </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Early NA Policy <ul><li>British supplying NA with supplies for attack on American frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Fallen Timbers-1794 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated by “Mad” Anthony Wayne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Greenville: NA gave up claims to Ohio Terr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natives side with British in pre War of 1812 conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tecumseh- unified tribes to keep settlers out of IL, IN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophet-revival of tribal culture! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falls after death of Tecumseh at Battle of Thames 1813 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assimilation so they work on less land and move into American society </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce Clause sees them as distinguishable from foreign nations </li></ul><ul><li>Treaties to annex land to US </li></ul>
    29. 29. Removal <ul><li>Despite the “civilization” of tribes, esp. Cherokee, NA policy shifts to removal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequoyah- Cherokee alphabet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act 1830: forced resettlement </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: NA’s are not foreign nation (commerce clause) and cannot sue (to stay on tribal lands)! </li></ul><ul><li>Worchester v. Georgia- laws of Georgia have no authority in Cherokee lands (victory for NA’s?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States v. Fed govt: AJ does not enforce SC decision! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaty of New Echota- final removal of NA’s </li></ul><ul><li>1836: Bureau of Indian Affairs was created to help </li></ul><ul><li>Trail of Tears- 15,000 forced West, 4,000 died! </li></ul>
    30. 30. Indian Wars Timeline <ul><li>Treaty of Laramie 1851-reservation system adopted- boundaries not adhered to by NA’s </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Wars: Sand Creek Massacre, Sioux Wars, Little Big Horn </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Chief Joseph led resistance to reservations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Buffalo destroys way of life by 1880’s </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation- A Century of Dishonor by Helen H. Jackson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carlise School- teach white culture to assimilate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dawes Severalty Act 1887-Divided tribal land into plots, broke up tribal orgs that kept NA’s from being assimilated, US citizenship if on land for 25 years and become “civilized” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ghost Dance- Wovoka’s promise of a return of the day of the buffalo and white man’s inventions would be removed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting Bull killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wounded Knee- end of Ghost Dance and Native American resistance </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. 1920’s through 1940’s <ul><li>1924: citizenship to all NA’s, whether or not they complied with Dawes Act </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Reorganization Act-1934 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted reorganization of tribal lands and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back to reservations! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compensation- settle outstanding claims from govt taking land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>285 claims worth $800 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination-end of special relationship with NA’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to deal with NA’s goes to state and local govts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No more reservations, health care, education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relocation-1948: paid for ticket, provided relocation centers for NA’s to move to cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New form of assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban lifestyle leads to growth of movement of 60’s </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. 1960’s <ul><li>Rise of NA movement- because of movement to the cities, identity formed across tribal lines, protect culture </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Youth Council- 1961: more militant discontent with older generation’s leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Indian Movement 1968- to help the problems facing urban Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Successes: end of termination, relocation, restored some tribal lands, compensation, tribal sovereignty, protection of NA religion </li></ul>
    33. 33. Push Pull Factors <ul><li>Push </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political upheaval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Rich, Labor poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Colonies especially!! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Colonial Immigration <ul><li>Population grows ten times from 1700-1770 </li></ul><ul><li>England- by 1770, less than 1/2 of colonists of of English ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Scots-Irish- Mostly came as indentured servants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled on Piedmont </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Militant Preysbeterians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>German- largest group- 85,000 by 1770 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful, mostly Lutheran, Mennonites or Amish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled as farmers in Middle Colonies </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Early 1800’s immigration <ul><li>85% of all immigrants pre-1880 are from West and North Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Germans-skilled craftsmen </li></ul><ul><li>Irish- poor, unskilled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potato Famine- largest immigrant group pre-Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Racism- between immigrant groups and freed blacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish and Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NYC Riots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nativism: Know-Nothing Party </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Conflict- wages and jobs!!! </li></ul>
    36. 36. “ New” Immigrants <ul><li>Southern and Eastern Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of all immigrants by 1896 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jewish- escaping Russia came as families </li></ul><ul><li>Asia- work on rr’s in west (90%), hard-working, willing to work for less </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1882- Chinese Exclusion Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1907- Gentleman’s Agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2/3 settle in cities as poor, unskilled workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago- 75% immigrants, NYC- 80%, Boston- 66% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Racism- different language, culture, radical thought, religion, willingness to work for low wages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotas 1924- based on 1890 immigration </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Post WWII Immigration <ul><li>McCarren-Walter Act 1952- ends ban on Asian immigration, maintained Quota System </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration and Nationality Act 1965 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished quota system!! </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>“ Slavery was the dominating reality of all Southern Life.” Assess the Validity for 2 of the following aspects of southern life: political, economic, social and intellectual life </li></ul><ul><li>How do you account for the failure of Reconstruction to bring social and economic equality to the former slaves? </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>How were the lives of the Plains Indians in the second half of the nineteenth century affected by technological developments and govt actions? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Throughout its historyt he US has been a land of refuge and opp for immigrants”. Assess the validity for two: Scots Irish on the 1700’s appalachian frontier, irish in 19th century urban NE, Chinese in 19th century West </li></ul>

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