THE CHURCH 1000 A.D. – 1300 A.D. AND THE CRUSADES
Section 1 <ul><li>The Catholic Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Life </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Ceremonies </li></ul><ul...
Political Life <ul><li>Helped govern </li></ul><ul><li>Were lords and vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Advised king </li></ul><ul...
The Inquisition <ul><li>Problem with heresy </li></ul><ul><li>1129 council of bishops </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition  </li>...
 
Attempts at Reform <ul><li>Tithing at 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles donated  </li></ul><ul><li>land and money </li></ul><ul...
The Monks of Cluny <ul><li>Devout fight back </li></ul><ul><li>Benedictine Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Cluny Monastery </li></u...
Pope Gregory VII <ul><li>Pope was powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religiously/politically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ruled from...
1075 Document lays out Pope’s powers <ul><li>Power above the kings and nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Choose bishops/church lead...
Friars <ul><li>1200’s – spread the word of Christianity and reform </li></ul><ul><li>Like Monks </li></ul><ul><li>Sold all...
Orders of Friars <ul><li>Franciscans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by Francis of Assisi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheerfu...
<ul><li>Dominicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by Spanish monk named Dominic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of poverty ...
Going to School in the Middle Ages <ul><li>Cathedrals- headed by bishops </li></ul><ul><li>Main goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
What did the  boys  study? <ul><li>7 subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>Logic...
<ul><li>Fæder ure, ðu ðe eart on heofenum, si ðin nama gehalgod; to-becume ðin rice; geweorþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa ...
No free education! <ul><li>Paid fees for school </li></ul><ul><li>Rented hall </li></ul><ul><li>Few books </li></ul><ul><l...
Off to college… <ul><li>University system created from desire to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Union formed between students/tea...
How did the University work? <ul><li>Chancellor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permission to teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set t...
Dorm Life… <ul><li>1 st  lived in boarding houses </li></ul><ul><li>Rich sponsors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built special buil...
A Very Special Teacher <ul><li>Thomas Aquinas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noted scholar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith  and  r...
<ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped people know what the world was like. Helped them lead a good life...
His writings… <ul><li>Summa Theologica </li></ul><ul><li>A Summary of Religious Thought </li></ul><ul><li>Asked questions ...
The Crusades <ul><li>1071 Turks conquered Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled shrines </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble for Chr...
Beginnings… <ul><li>Turks continue to expand </li></ul><ul><li>Threaten Byzantine empire </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Urban II f...
<ul><li>Stop “civil war,” focus on Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Underfed </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, fertile land </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/1090map.htm </li></ul>
 
The Peasants’ Crusade <ul><li>Deus Vult   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It Is The Will of God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>9 months camp...
<ul><li>1096, 12000 untrained army from France </li></ul><ul><li>God’s help </li></ul><ul><li>German armies </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Constantinople </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 gone, broke, rags, stealing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sent to Asia Minor </l...
The Nobles’ Crusade <ul><li>1097, Lords led </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vassals, wives, kids, clerks, cooks, blacksmiths </li></...
<ul><ul><li>Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation, dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture Syrian cities </li...
The Kingdom Beyond the Sea <ul><li>Crusades lose steam </li></ul><ul><li>Return home </li></ul><ul><li>4 feudal kingdoms <...
<ul><li>Takeover of estates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How the s...
<ul><li>How did they live? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built a castle, bigger and better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed clot...
Saladin and the Crusade of Kings <ul><li>1174- Saladin, ruler of Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>United Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><ul><li>Emirs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty, consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shocked by Christi...
 
<ul><ul><li>Saladin took Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal to massacre </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
2nd Crusade of Kings <ul><li>Urged by the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Led by 3 most powerful rulers in Europe </li></ul><ul><...
King Phillip II King Richard Emperor Barbarossa
<ul><li>A failure of a crusade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick dies in Asia Minor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philip & Richard ...
The Loss of an Ideal <ul><li>1202 Pope Innocent III calls for another crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Knights answered the call ...
<ul><li>Came by sea </li></ul><ul><li>Used Venice as a port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made deal with Venetians </li></ul></ul>...
Other Crusades <ul><li>Several fought—none won </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s crusade- 1212 (2 groups) </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><ul><li>Set sail from France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children sold into slavery by captains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>1291- Acre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last Christian stronghold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed to regain all the la...
Effects of the Crusades <ul><li>Effected by Near East and western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent split between Byzanti...
<ul><li>Interest in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Luxuries items </li></ul><ul><li>New trade – new towns </li></ul>
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Chapter 25 The Church And Crusades

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The Church and its role during the crusades

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  • Chapter 25 The Church And Crusades

    1. 1. THE CHURCH 1000 A.D. – 1300 A.D. AND THE CRUSADES
    2. 2. Section 1 <ul><li>The Catholic Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Life </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Holidays to honor Saints/events </li></ul><ul><li>No meat on Fridays </li></ul><ul><li>Mass on Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>Church ran schools, hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Monks, Nuns helped travelers </li></ul><ul><li>Priests –births, marriages, </li></ul><ul><li>burials </li></ul>
    3. 3. Political Life <ul><li>Helped govern </li></ul><ul><li>Were lords and vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Advised king </li></ul><ul><li>Canon law first </li></ul><ul><li>Excommunicated </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Inquisition <ul><li>Problem with heresy </li></ul><ul><li>1129 council of bishops </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>1 month for confession </li></ul><ul><li>Whipping and jail time </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure of non-confessors </li></ul><ul><li>2 witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Confessors sentenced </li></ul><ul><li>Non-confessors tortured </li></ul>
    5. 6. Attempts at Reform <ul><li>Tithing at 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles donated </li></ul><ul><li>land and money </li></ul><ul><li>Monks became careless </li></ul><ul><li>Selling of “religious office” </li></ul><ul><li>Church under scrutiny </li></ul>
    6. 7. The Monks of Cluny <ul><li>Devout fight back </li></ul><ul><li>Benedictine Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Cluny Monastery </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, prayerful </li></ul><ul><li>Followed the Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership spread </li></ul>
    7. 8. Pope Gregory VII <ul><li>Pope was powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religiously/politically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ruled from Rome </li></ul><ul><li>College of Cardinals </li></ul><ul><li>2 goals as Pope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rid the Church of kings/nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Pope’s power over Church officials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dismissed those who “sold” offices </li></ul><ul><li>No marriage </li></ul>
    8. 9. 1075 Document lays out Pope’s powers <ul><li>Power above the kings and nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Choose bishops/church leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Government officials removed who disobeyed </li></ul><ul><li>People followed only officials who followed the Pope </li></ul>
    9. 10. Friars <ul><li>1200’s – spread the word of Christianity and reform </li></ul><ul><li>Like Monks </li></ul><ul><li>Sold all belongings </li></ul><ul><li>Depended on the people </li></ul><ul><li>Did not marry </li></ul><ul><li>Roamed from town to town </li></ul>
    10. 11. Orders of Friars <ul><li>Franciscans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by Francis of Assisi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheerfulness, confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature should be respected </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Dominicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by Spanish monk named Dominic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words and deeds showed loyalty </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Going to School in the Middle Ages <ul><li>Cathedrals- headed by bishops </li></ul><ul><li>Main goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare noble’s SONS for the Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. What did the boys study? <ul><li>7 subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Fæder ure, ðu ðe eart on heofenum, si ðin nama gehalgod; to-becume ðin rice; geweorþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge dæghwamlican hlaf syle us to-deag, and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgifaþ urum gyltendum, ane ne gelæde ðu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle. Amen. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Wl-OZ3breE </li></ul>
    15. 16. No free education! <ul><li>Paid fees for school </li></ul><ul><li>Rented hall </li></ul><ul><li>Few books </li></ul><ul><li>memorization </li></ul>
    16. 17. Off to college… <ul><li>University system created from desire to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Union formed between students/teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Union becomes the “university” </li></ul><ul><li>1200’s spreads throughout Europe </li></ul>
    17. 18. How did the University work? <ul><li>Chancellor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permission to teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set times for class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listened to lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lecturers (teachers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 yrs old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 yrs study </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Dorm Life… <ul><li>1 st lived in boarding houses </li></ul><ul><li>Rich sponsors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built special buildings (dorms) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules for the dorm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend daily Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not gamble, disturb the peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not practice sword fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punished </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. A Very Special Teacher <ul><li>Thomas Aquinas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noted scholar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith and reason were gifts from God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to bring the two gifts together </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped people know what the world was like. Helped them lead a good life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revealed religious truths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped understand life after death </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 22. His writings… <ul><li>Summa Theologica </li></ul><ul><li>A Summary of Religious Thought </li></ul><ul><li>Asked questions and presented different opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Gave answers to the questions </li></ul><ul><li>(sound like anything else we have studied) </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted and promoted by the Church </li></ul>
    22. 23. The Crusades <ul><li>1071 Turks conquered Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled shrines </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble for Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Shock in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>200 years of “holy wars” </li></ul>
    23. 24. Beginnings… <ul><li>Turks continue to expand </li></ul><ul><li>Threaten Byzantine empire </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Urban II for help </li></ul><ul><li>Unite Eastern Orthodox Church </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Stop “civil war,” focus on Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Underfed </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, fertile land </li></ul><ul><li>Free debts, taxes </li></ul><ul><li>God would forgive sins </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cross on tunics </li></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/1090map.htm </li></ul>
    26. 28. The Peasants’ Crusade <ul><li>Deus Vult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It Is The Will of God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>9 months campaigning </li></ul><ul><li>Christians and duty </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles wanted land/fame </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants wanted change </li></ul>
    27. 29. <ul><li>1096, 12000 untrained army from France </li></ul><ul><li>God’s help </li></ul><ul><li>German armies </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked, looted, burned </li></ul><ul><li>Massacred Jews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Christians, enemies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Villagers fought back </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked camps </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. <ul><li>Constantinople </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 gone, broke, rags, stealing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sent to Asia Minor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies/ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiped out </li></ul></ul>
    29. 31. The Nobles’ Crusade <ul><li>1097, Lords led </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vassals, wives, kids, clerks, cooks, blacksmiths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>30000 to Asia Minor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeat Turks </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. <ul><ul><li>Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation, dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture Syrian cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12000 Arrive in Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capture Holy City </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kill Turks, Jews, & Christians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loot, gold, silver, goods, livestock </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 33. The Kingdom Beyond the Sea <ul><li>Crusades lose steam </li></ul><ul><li>Return home </li></ul><ul><li>4 feudal kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Outremer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The kingdom beyond the sea </li></ul></ul>
    32. 34. <ul><li>Takeover of estates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How the system worked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab peasants worked the land, orchards, vineyards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as advisers, managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendships developed with Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knew much about medicine, science, math </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Times of peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crusaders hunted, ran estates, attended court </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 35. <ul><li>How did they live? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built a castle, bigger and better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed clothing styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed hygiene habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed eating habits </li></ul></ul>
    34. 36. Saladin and the Crusade of Kings <ul><li>1174- Saladin, ruler of Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>United Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Christian occupation </li></ul><ul><li>The Military </li></ul>
    35. 37. <ul><ul><li>Emirs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty, consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shocked by Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rode on ponies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short bows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crusaders had long bows and heavy armor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learned to use the crossbow </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 39. <ul><ul><li>Saladin took Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal to massacre </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much respect </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 40. 2nd Crusade of Kings <ul><li>Urged by the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Led by 3 most powerful rulers in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Richard I, England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Philip II Augustus of France </li></ul></ul>
    38. 41. King Phillip II King Richard Emperor Barbarossa
    39. 42. <ul><li>A failure of a crusade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick dies in Asia Minor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philip & Richard always fighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took a few towns together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philip returns to France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard left to fight alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Richard the Lionheart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brave warrior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 years signed truce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem still under Muslim control </li></ul></ul>
    40. 43. The Loss of an Ideal <ul><li>1202 Pope Innocent III calls for another crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Knights answered the call </li></ul>
    41. 44. <ul><li>Came by sea </li></ul><ul><li>Used Venice as a port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made deal with Venetians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shocked western Europeans </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 45. Other Crusades <ul><li>Several fought—none won </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s crusade- 1212 (2 groups) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by peasant, Stephen of Cloyes </li></ul></ul>
    43. 46. <ul><ul><li>Set sail from France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children sold into slavery by captains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd group from Germany left on foot- died of starvation or disease </li></ul></ul>
    44. 47. <ul><li>1291- Acre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last Christian stronghold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed to regain all the land in Palestine </li></ul></ul>
    45. 48. Effects of the Crusades <ul><li>Effected by Near East and western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent split between Byzantines Church (eastern) and western church </li></ul><ul><li>Broke down feudalism in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings increased power/authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power overcame religion </li></ul></ul>
    46. 49. <ul><li>Interest in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Luxuries items </li></ul><ul><li>New trade – new towns </li></ul>

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