Reconstruction Slideshow Chapter 16

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  • {"60":"Declaration of Equality: Justice: “Five More Wanted” An outraged “Justice” in this Thomas Nast cartoon demands the execution of an equal number of white men to balance the six blacks whom whites captured in the aftermath of the Hamburg massacre in July 1876 and then executed. Justice is framed by the Constitution on the left and the Declaration of Independence on the right. On the pillar to her right are posters with the names of white terrorist groups, the “K.K.K.”, the “White League,” and the “White Liners,” as well as a notice, “Negroes Shot in Cold Blood at Hamburg, S.C.” The Hamburg massacre provoked temporary outrage in the North, but little response from the Grant administration.\n","44":"“Time Works Wonders.” This Thomas Nast cartoon has Jefferson Davis, former President of the Confederacy, dressed as Iago in William Shakespeare’s play Othello, declaring with considerable anguish,“ For that I suspect the lusty moor [Othello] hath leap’d into my seat: the thought where of doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw my inwards,” Indeed, Hiram Revels occupies Davis’s old seat in the U.S. Senate representing the state of Mississippi in 1870.\n","22":"The black church was the center of African American life in the postwar urban South.Most black churches were founded after the Civil War, but some, such as the First African Baptist Church in Richmond, shown here in an 1874 engraving, traced their origins to before 1861.\n","28":"Selling a Freeman to Pay his Fine at Monticello, Florida. This 1867 engraving shows how the black codes of the early Reconstruction era reduced former slaves to virtually their pre–Civil War status. Scenes like this convinced northerners that the white South was unrepentant and prompted congressional Republicans to devise their own Reconstruction plans.\n","34":"MAP 16–1 Congressional Reconstruction, 1865–1877\nWhen Congress wrested control of Reconstruction policy from President Andrew Johnson, it divided the South into the five military districts depicted here. The commanding generals for each district held the authority both to hold elections and to decide who could vote.\n","68":"“The Ignorant Vote” By the time Thomas Nast drew this cartoon in 1876, northern whites had connected their concerns about the role of immigrants in the politics of their cities and the charges of southern whites about the corruption and incompetence of blacks in their governments. Though the characterization of blacks in southern governments was considerably overwrought, that of corrupt and inefficient northern urban political machines was less so. Northern whites, however, viewed the situations as equivalent and enabled southern whites to overthrow Reconstruction. The balance scale, one side marked “North” contains Nast’s usual monkey-like representation of the Irish immigrant, and the other side marked “South” holds a grinning caricature of a black field hand.\n","35":"The Democratic Party ran an openly racist presidential campaign in 1868.This pro- Republican drawing by noted cartoonist Thomas Nast includes three Democratic constituencies: former Confederate soldiers (note the “CSA” on the belt buckle); the Irish or immigrant vote (note the almost Simian depiction of the Irishman), and the well-dressed Democratic presidential candidate, Horatio Seymour, sporting a “5thAvenue” button and waving a wallet full of bills, a reference to the corrupt Democratic politics in New York City. The three have their feet on an African American soldier. In the background note the “colored orphan asylum” and “southern school” ablaze, and the lynching of black children.\n","63":"MAP 16–2 The Election of 1876\nThe Democrat Samuel F. Tilden won a majority of the popular vote but eventually fell short of an electoral vote majority when the contested electoral votes of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina went to his Republican opponent, Rutherford B. Hayes. The map also indicates the Republicans’ failure to build a base in the South after more than a decade of Reconstruction.\n","19":"Freed women washing laundry along a creek near Circleville, Texas, circa 1866.Other than farming, domestic service was the only work open to freed women after the Civil War.\n","3":"“A Hunger to Learn. ”This 1863 watercolor by Henry L. Stephens depicts an elderly African American, probably a former slave, learning to read. The newspaper’s headline states, “Presidential Proclamation, Slavery.” Learning transcended age among freed blacks in the South.\n","42":"Official photograph Congressional Black Caucus, 106th Congress.\n","48":"The Klan directed violence at African Americans primarily for engaging in political activity. Here, a black man, John Campbell, vainly begs for mercy in Moore County, North Carolina, in August 1871.\n","15":"The Freedmen’s Bureau, northern churches, and missionary societies established more than 3,000 schools, attended by some 150,000 men, women, and children in the years after the Civil War. At first, mostly young white women from the Northeast staffed these schools.\n","43":"Southern black men during Reconstruction went to great lengths to vote and to protect themselves on election day as these voters fording a stream with rifles aloft attest.\n","10":"This engraving shows southerners decorating the graves of rebel soldiers at Hollywood Memorial Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia in 1867. Northerners and southerners alike honored their war dead. But in the South, the practice of commemorating fallen soldiers became an important element in maintaining the myth of the Lost Cause that colored white southerners’ view of the war.\n"}
  • Reconstruction Slideshow Chapter 16

    1. 1. THE AMERICAN JOURNEY A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES Brief Sixth Edition Chapter 16 Reconstruction 1865-1877 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Reconstruction 1865-1877 • • • • • • White Southerners and the Ghosts of the Conf More Than Freedom: African American Aspira Federal Reconstruction, 1865–1870 Counter-Reconstruction, 1870–1874 Redemption, 1874–1877 Conclusion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. “A Hunger to Learn.” This 1863 watercolor by Henry L. Stephens depicts an elderly African American, probably a former slave, learning to read. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. Learning Objectives • How did Southerners remember the war? • How did it shape their response to Reconstruction? • What were African Americans’ hopes for Reconstruction? • How did Presidential Reconstruction differ from Congressional Reconstruction? The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. Learning Objectives (cont'd) • What role did violence play in CounterReconstruction? • Why did the federal government abandon African Americans after 1872? • How and why did Reconstruction end? The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. White Southerners and the Ghosts of the Confederacy 1865 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. White Southerners and the Ghosts of the Confederacy, 1865 • Confederate soldiers returned to devastated homes that they could hardly recognize. • Southerners lived surrounded by ghosts of lost loved ones, happy and prosperous times, slavery, and self confidence. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. White Southerners and the Ghosts of the Confederacy, 1865 (cont'd) • Southerners viewed the war as the lost cause that existed not just in memory but as a three-dimensional picture of Southern history celebrated in rituals and as the educational foundation for future generations. • Equally important, white Southerners were determined to maintain strict racial boundaries. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. White Southerners and the Ghosts of the Confederacy, 1865 (cont'd)  Lost Cause - The phrase many white southerners applied to their Civil War defeat. They viewed the war as a noble cause but only a temporary setback in the South’s ultimate vindication. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. This engraving shows southerners decorating the graves of rebel soldiers at Hollywood Memorial Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia in 1867. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. More Than Freedom: African American Aspirations in 1865 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. More Than Freedom: African American Aspirations in 1865 • Black Southerners viewed the war as a victory for freedom and Reconstruction as a time of possibilities that were helped by the establishment of the Freedmen’s Bureau. • The Freedmen’s Bureau helped establish more than 3,000 schools serving 150,000 men, women, and children. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. More Than Freedom: African American Aspirations in 1865 (cont'd)  Freedmen’s Bureau - Agency established by Congress in March 1865 to provide social, educational, and economic services, advice, and protection to former slaves and destitute whites; lasted seven years. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. Education • At the end of the Civil War, about 10 percent of black Southerners were literate. Within a decade, that percentage had grown to 30 percent. • Black colleges were also established. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. The Freedmen’s Bureau, northern churches, and missionary societies established more than 3,000 schools, attended by some 150,000 men, women, and children The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. “Forty Acres and a Mule” • Land ownership offered ex-slaves the prospect of economic independence. • During the war, General Sherman had set aside abandoned land for African Americans. In 1866, the Southern Homestead Act gave African Americans preferential access to public land in the southern states. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. “Forty Acres and a Mule” (cont’d) • By 1890, one out of thee black farmers in the Upper South owned land, compared to one in five for the entire South.  Field Order No. 15 - Order by General William T. Sherman in January 1865 to set aside abandoned land along the southern Atlantic coast for forty-acre grants to freedmen; rescinded by President Andrew Johnson later that year. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. “Forty Acres and a Mule” (cont’d)  Southern Homestead Act - Largely unsuccessful law passed in 1866 that gave black people preferential access to public lands in five southern states.  Sharecropping - Labor system that evolved during and after Reconstruction whereby landowners furnished laborers with a house, farm animals, and tools and advanced credit in exchange for a share of the laborers’ crop. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. Freed women washing laundry along a creek near Circleville, Texas, circa 1866. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. Migration to Cities • Between 1860 and 1870, the African American population rose in every major southern city. • Most black migrants in the city worked at unskilled jobs. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    21. 21. Faith and Freedom • The church became a primary focus of African American life, providing an opportunity to develop skills in selfgovernment and administration. • The church and the congregation were a cohesive force in black communities. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    22. 22. The black church was the center of African American life in the postwar urban South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    23. 23. Federal Reconstruction 1865–1870 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    24. 24. Presidential Reconstruction, 1865–1867 • Because Congress was not in session, President Johnson developed a Reconstruction plan that extended pardons and restored property rights to most Southerners swearing an oath of allegiance to the Union and the Constitution. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    25. 25. Presidential Reconstruction, 1865– 1867(cont'd) • Northerners initially supported the Johnson plan but southerners opposed it. They enacted black codes that turned northern opinion against Johnson. • The Republican-dominated Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    26. 26. Presidential Reconstruction, 1865– 1867(cont'd)  Black codes - Laws passed by states and municipalities denying many rights of citizenship to free blacks before the Civil War. Also, during the Reconstruction era, laws passed by newly elected southern state legislatures to control black labor, mobility, and employment. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    27. 27. Presidential Reconstruction, 1865– 1867(cont'd)  Fourteenth Amendment - Constitutional amendment passed by Congress in April 1866 incorporating some of the features of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. It prohibited states from violating the civil rights of its citizens and offered states the choice of allowing black people to vote or losing representation in Congress. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    28. 28. This 1867 engraving shows how the black codes of the early Reconstruction era reduced former slaves to virtually their pre–Civil War status. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    29. 29. Congressional Reconstruction, 1867–1870 • Radical Republicans began taking control of Reconstruction and divided the South into five military districts. • Other acts secured the right to vote for freedmen, made it likely that Republicans would run southern states, and set harsh standards for southern readmission. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    30. 30. Congressional Reconstruction, 1867–1870 (cont’d) • The Tenure of Office Act prohibited the president from removing certain officeholders without the Senate’s consent. Johnson violated the Act and was impeached but not convicted. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    31. 31. Congressional Reconstruction, 1867–1870 (cont’d) • Republicans passed the Fifteenth Amendment.  Congressional Reconstruction - Name given to the period 1867–1870 when the Republican-dominated Congress controlled Reconstruction era policy. It is sometimes known as Radical Reconstruction, after the radical faction in the Republican Party. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    32. 32. Congressional Reconstruction, 1867–1870 (cont’d)  Tenure of Office Act - Passed by the Republican controlled Congress in 1867 to limit presidential interference with its policies, the act prohibited the president from removing certain officeholders without the Senate’s consent. President Andrew Johnson, angered at which he believed as an unconstitutional attack on presidential authority, deliberately violated the act by firing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. The House responded by approving articles of impeachment against a president for the first time in American history. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    33. 33. Congressional Reconstruction, 1867–1870 (cont’d)  Fifteenth Amendment - Passed by Congress in 1869, guaranteed the right of American men to vote, regardless of race. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    34. 34. MAP 16–1 Congressional Reconstruction, 1865–1877 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    35. 35. This pro- Republican drawing by noted cartoonist Thomas Nast includes three Democratic constituencies The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    36. 36. Southern Republican Governments, 1867–1870 • The Republican regimes in the southern states passed constitutions that promoted vigorous state governments and the protection of civil and voting rights. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    37. 37. Southern Republican Governments, 1867–1870 (cont’d) • Southern Republicans consisted of three groups; white yeoman farmers, former Whigs were called scalawags by opponents and Northern transplants were called carpetbaggers. The largest constituency was African Americans. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    38. 38. Southern Republican Governments, 1867–1870 (cont’d) • Southern African Americans served in government positions including the U. S. Congress and state legislatures. • Republican state governments were criticized for waste and corruption. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    39. 39. Southern Republican Governments, 1867–1870 (cont’d)  Scalawags - Southern whites, mainly small landowning farmers and well-off merchants and planters, who supported the southern Republican Party during Reconstruction for diverse reasons; a disparaging term.  Carpetbaggers - Pejorative term to describe northern transplants to the South, many of whom were Union soldiers who stayed in the South after the war. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    40. 40. Southern Republican Governments, 1867–1870 (cont’d)  Union League - A Republican Party organization in northern cities that became an important organizing device among freedmen in southern cities after 1865. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    41. 41. Contrasting Views of Reconstruction: President and Congress The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    42. 42. Official photograph Congressional Black Caucus, 106th Congress. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    43. 43. Southern black men during Reconstruction The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    44. 44. “Time Works Wonders.” This Thomas Nast cartoon has Jefferson Davis, former President of the Confederacy, dressed as Iago in William Shakespeare’s play Othello The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    45. 45. Counter-Reconstruction 1870–1874 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    46. 46. The Uses of Violence • Racial violence was widespread before Republican rule. • The Ku Klux Klan unleashed a wave of terror throughout the South and often had political objectives. • The federal government sought to combat violence by passing the Fifteenth Amendment, the Enforcement Act of 1870, and the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    47. 47. The Uses of Violence (cont'd)  Ku Klux Klan - Perhaps the most prominent of the vigilante groups that terrorized black people in the South during Reconstruction Era, founded by Confederate veterans in 1866. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    48. 48. Here, a black man, John Campbell, vainly begs for mercy in Moore County, North Carolina, in August 1871. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    49. 49. Northern Indifference • After 1871, political violence succeeded in showing the lack of northern Republican will to follow through on commitments to southern Republicans. • Northern support for Congressional Reconstruction began eroding in 1868. • At local and federal levels, political corruption was widespread in the 1870s. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    50. 50. Northern Indifference (cont’d) • African Americans and immigrants were targets of racial theory that saw them as inferior. • A reform movement arose to address the ills of government. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    51. 51. Liberal Republicans and the Election of 1872 • Liberal Republican reformers advocated civil service reform to reduce the abuses of patronage. They also supported tariff reduction and an end to federal land grants to railroads. • The Democrats forged an alliance with the Liberal Republicans nominating Horace Greeley for president in 1872. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    52. 52. Liberal Republicans and the Election of 1872 (cont'd) • Grant won re-election in 1872. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    53. 53. Economic Transformation • Despite the suffering caused by the Panic of 1873, the nation underwent a remarkable economic transformation and moved toward a national industrial economy. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    54. 54. Economic Transformation (cont’d) • The economy grew extremely quickly during the 1870s, fueled by increased consumption and the rapid expansion of new industries, as well as the application of technology in iron and steel production. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    55. 55. Redemption 1874–1877 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    56. 56. Redemption, 1874–1877 • The elections of 1876 confirmed the triumph of white southerners, who had accomplished their political goals by a surge in violence. • Most Americans had become increasingly indifferent to African American aspirations and looked the other way. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    57. 57. Redemption, 1874–1877 (cont'd)  Redeemers - Southern Democrats who wrested control of governments in the former Confederacy, often through electoral fraud and violence, from Republicans beginning in 1870. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    58. 58. The Democrats’ Violent Resurgence • Violence between 1874 and 1876 was directly and openly connected to the Democratic Party. It aimed to stop Africa Americans from voting. • Backed by violence, Democrats throughout the South swept to political power in 1874. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    59. 59. The Weak Federal Response • Congress responded to the violence in the South with the Civil Rights Act of 1875 but it failed to fulfill this purpose. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    60. 60. Declaration of Equality: Justice: “Five More Wanted” The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    61. 61. The Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 • Reconstruction officially ended with the election of 1876. • The Democratic candidate Samuel J. Tilden won a majority of the popular vote but disputed returns in three southern states led to a compromise that gave the election to Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    62. 62. Redemption, 1874–1877 (cont'd) • The Compromise of 1877 gave control of the southern state governments to Democrats.  Compromise of 1877 - The congressional settling of the 1876 election which installed Republican Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House and gave Democrats control of all state governments in the South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    63. 63. MAP 16–2 The Election of 1876 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    64. 64. The Memory of Reconstruction • Southern Democrats used the memory of Reconstruction to maintain themselves in power. Reconstruction became the Redemption. • For white Southerners, it represented a horrible time that ended with the rescue of the South from black rule and federal government oppression. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    65. 65. The Memory of Reconstruction (cont’d) • The southern view of Reconstruction was perpetuated in textbooks, films, and some histories of the period. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    66. 66. Constitutional Amendments and Federal Legislation of the Reconstruction Era The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    67. 67. Constitutional Amendments and Federal Legislation of the Reconstruction Era The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    68. 68. “The Ignorant Vote” By the time Thomas Nast drew this cartoon in 1876 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    69. 69. Modest Gains • The overthrow of Reconstruction frustrated black southerners and reversed the economic and political gains they had made, as well as deprived them of most of the civil rights they had enjoyed. • Still, the former slaves were better off in 1877 than in 1865 and continued to experience social, educational, and economic advances, if slowly. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    70. 70. Modest Gains (cont'd) • The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments are among the few bright spots in Reconstruction’s otherwise dismal legacy.  Slaughterhouse cases - Group of cases resulting in one sweeping decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1873 that contradicted the intent of the Fourteenth Amendment by decreeing that most citizenship rights remained under state, not federal, control. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    71. 71. Modest Gains (cont'd)  United States v. Cruikshank - Supreme Court ruling of 1876 that overturned the convictions of some of those responsible for the Colfax Massacre, ruling that the Enforcement Act applied only to violations of black rights by states, not individuals. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    72. 72. Conclusion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    73. 73. Conclusion • White Southerners robbed black Southerners of their gains and tried to return them to a dependent servitude. • By 1877, the southern question no longer captured the attention of the public. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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