PowerPoint                     Lecture              Integumentary                  SystemCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Compa...
Introduction• Two or more kinds of tissues grouped togetherand performing specialized functions constitutesan organ.• The ...
Skin and Its Tissues• Composed of several tissue types• Maintains homeostasis• Protective covering• Retards water loss• Re...
Layers of Skin (2)                         Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproductio...
Epidermis                                             Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for ...
EpidermisThere are five (5) layers of the epidermis:   • stratum corneum   • stratum lucidum   • stratum granulosum   • st...
Epidermis• Heredity and environment determine skin color• Genetic Factors              • Physiological Factors   • Varying...
Dermis• On average 1.0-2.0mm thick• Contains dermal papillae                                                     Copyright...
Dermis• There are actually two (2) layers to the dermis:                                               Copyright © The McG...
Subcutaneous Layer• Aka hypodermis                    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for ...
Accessory Structures            of the Skin• Accessory structures of the skin originate from theepidermis and include:   •...
Hair Follicles                         Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or...
Nails                           Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displa...
Sebaceous Glands                                 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for repro...
Sweat Glands                            Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction o...
Regulation of           Body Temperature• Regulation of body temperature is vitally importantbecause even slight shifts ca...
Regulation of Body  Temperature       Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or ...
Heat Production and Loss• Heat is a product of cellular metabolism   • The most active body cells are the heat producers  ...
Problems in Temperature       Regulation• Hyperthermia – abnormally high body temperature• Hypothermia – abnormally low bo...
Healing of Wounds and Burns• Inflammation is a normal response to injury or stress.• Blood vessels in affected tissues dil...
Healing of Cuts                          Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction ...
Types of Burns• First degree burn – superficial, partial-thickness• Second degree burn – deep, partial-thickness• Third de...
Rule of Nines for Adults                       Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reprodu...
Lifespan Changes• Skin becomes scaly   • Melanin production slows• Age spots appear     • Hair thins• Epidermis thins     ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Skin ap

505

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
505
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Skin ap

  1. 1. PowerPoint Lecture Integumentary SystemCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Introduction• Two or more kinds of tissues grouped togetherand performing specialized functions constitutesan organ.• The skin and its various structures make up theintegumentary system. 2
  3. 3. Skin and Its Tissues• Composed of several tissue types• Maintains homeostasis• Protective covering• Retards water loss• Regulates body temperature• Houses sensory receptors• Contains immune system cells• Synthesizes chemicals (such as vit D)• Excretes small amounts of wastes 3
  4. 4. Layers of Skin (2) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Epidermis Stratified squamous• Dermis epithelium• Subcutaneous layer • aka hypodermis Dense irregular connective • beneath dermis tissue • some also call it the superficial fascia • not part of the Adipose tissue skin © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer 4
  5. 5. Epidermis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Lacks blood vessels Hair shaft• Keratinized Sweat gland pore Sweat Stratum corneum Epidermis Stratum basale• Thickest on palms and Capillary Dermal papilla Basement membrane soles (0.8-1.4mm) Dermis TTactile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle• Melanocytes provide Sweat gland duct Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Hair folliclemelanin Subcutaneous layer Sweat gland Nerve cell process• Rests on basement membrane Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer• Stratified squamous epithelia (a) Hair shaft Epidermis Hair follicle Dermis Sebaceous gland (b) 5 b: © Victor Eroschenko
  6. 6. EpidermisThere are five (5) layers of the epidermis: • stratum corneum • stratum lucidum • stratum granulosum • stratum spinosum • stratum basale Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale Basement membrane Dermal papilla Dermis (a) (b) 6 b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
  7. 7. Epidermis• Heredity and environment determine skin color• Genetic Factors • Physiological Factors • Varying amounts of melanin • Dilation of dermal blood vessels • Varying size of melanin • Constriction of dermal blood granules vessels • Albinos lack melanin • Accumulation of carotene • Jaundice• Environmental Factors • Cyanosis • Sunlight • UV light from sunlamps • X-rays • Darkens melanin 7
  8. 8. Dermis• On average 1.0-2.0mm thick• Contains dermal papillae Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Binds epidermis to underlying Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Sweattissues Epidermis Stratum corneum Stratum basale Capillary• Irregular dense connective tissue Dermal papilla Basement membrane• Muscle cells – arrector pili Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Dermis Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle Sweat gland duct• Nerve cell processes Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Hair follicle• Specialized sensory receptors SubcutaneousSubcutaneous Sweat gland layer Nerve cell process Adipose tissue Blood vessels• Blood vessels (a) Muscle layer• Hair follicles• Glands 8
  9. 9. Dermis• There are actually two (2) layers to the dermis: Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Papillary layer • thin Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Sweat • superficial Epidermis Stratum corneum Stratum basale • dermal papillae here Capillary Dermal papilla • loose areolar CT Dermis Basement membrane Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle• Reticular layer Sweat gland duct Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle • 80% of dermis Hair follicle SubcutaneousSubcutaneous Sweat gland layer Nerve cell process • dense irregular CT Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer (a) 9
  10. 10. Subcutaneous Layer• Aka hypodermis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Loose connective Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Sweattissue and … Epidermis Stratum corneum Stratum basale Capillary Dermal papilla• Adipose tissue Dermis Basement membrane Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Sebaceous glandare present Arrector pili muscle Sweat gland duct Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle• Insulates Subcutaneous Hair follicle Sweat gland layer Nerve cell process Adipose tissue• Major blood Blood vessels Muscle layervessels present (a) 10
  11. 11. Accessory Structures of the Skin• Accessory structures of the skin originate from theepidermis and include: • Hair follicles • Nails • Skin glands 11
  12. 12. Hair Follicles Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Epidermal cells Hair shaft• Tube-like depression Pore• Extends into dermis• Three (3) parts: Sebaceous gland • Hair root • Hair shaft Arrector pili muscle Hair root • Hair papilla (keratinized cells) Hair follicle• Melanin Eccrine sweat gland Region of• Arrector pili muscle cell division Hair papilla DermalDermal blood vessels (a) 12
  13. 13. Nails Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Protective coverings Lunula Nail bed Nail plate• Three (3) parts: • Nail plate • Nail bed • Lunula 13
  14. 14. Sebaceous Glands Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Usually associated with hair Sebaceous glandfollicles Hair follicle• Holocrine glands• Secrete sebum (oil) Hair• Absent on palms and soles © Per H. Kjeldsen 14
  15. 15. Sweat Glands Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Aka sudoriferous glands Hair shaft• Widespread in skin Pore• Originates in deeper dermis Dermal papillaor hypodermis Sebaceous gland• Eccrine glands Duct Hair• Apocrine glands follicle Eccrine sweat• Ceruminous glands gland Apocrine sweat• Mammary glands gland 15
  16. 16. Regulation of Body Temperature• Regulation of body temperature is vitally importantbecause even slight shifts can disrupt metabolicreactions. 16
  17. 17. Regulation of Body Temperature Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Control center Hypothalamus detects the deviation from the set point and signals effector organs. Receptors Effectors Thermoreceptors Dermal blood vessels send signals to the dilate and sweat glands control center. secrete. Stimulus Response Body temperature rises Body heat is above normal. lost to surroundings, temperature drops toward normal. too high Normal body temperature 37°C (98.6°F) too low Stimulus Response Body temperature Body heat is conserved, drops below normal. temperature rises toward normal. Receptors Effectors Effectors Thermoreceptors Dermal blood Dermal blood send signals to the vessels constrict vessels constrict control center. and sweat glands and sweat glands remain inactive. remain inactive. Control center Hypothalamus detects the deviation from the set point and signals effector organs. If body temperature continues to drop, control center signals 17 muscles to contract involuntarily.
  18. 18. Heat Production and Loss• Heat is a product of cellular metabolism • The most active body cells are the heat producers and include: • Skeletal muscle • Cardiac muscle • Cells of certain glands such as the liver• The primary means of heat loss is radiation • Also there is conduction, convection and evaporation 18
  19. 19. Problems in Temperature Regulation• Hyperthermia – abnormally high body temperature• Hypothermia – abnormally low body temperature 19
  20. 20. Healing of Wounds and Burns• Inflammation is a normal response to injury or stress.• Blood vessels in affected tissues dilate and becomemore permeable, allowing fluids to leak into thedamaged tissues.• Inflammed skin may become: • Reddened • Swollen • Warm • Painful 20
  21. 21. Healing of Cuts Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Site of injury Blood cells (a) (b) Scab Blood clot(c) (d) (e) Scab Scar tissue Scar tissue Fibroblasts 21 (f) (g)
  22. 22. Types of Burns• First degree burn – superficial, partial-thickness• Second degree burn – deep, partial-thickness• Third degree burn – full-thickness 22
  23. 23. Rule of Nines for Adults Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Anterior head 41/2% Anterior and posterior head and neck 41/ 2% Posterior headand neck 41/2% 9% and neck 41/2% Anterior Anterior and Posterior trunk posterior upper trunk 18% extremities 18% 18%Anterior upper Anterior and Posterior upperextremities 9% posterior trunk extremities 9% 36% 41/ 2% 41/2% 41/2% 41/ 2% Perineum 1% 9% 9% 9% 9%Anterior lower Anterior and Posterior lowerextremities 18% posterior lower extremities 18% extremities 36% 23 100%
  24. 24. Lifespan Changes• Skin becomes scaly • Melanin production slows• Age spots appear • Hair thins• Epidermis thins • Number of hair follicles• Dermis becomes decreasesreduced • Nail growth becomes• Loss of fat impaired• Wrinkling • Sensory receptors decline• Sagging • Body temperature unable to• Sebaceous glands be controlledsecrete less oil • Diminished ability to activate Vitamin D 24
  1. Gostou de algum slide específico?

    Recortar slides é uma maneira fácil de colecionar informações para acessar mais tarde.

×