PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT                                          THEORY                          The Instructional Design ...
Performance Improvement                                         the                                      ove ns,          ...
KEYPrinciples                         The main elements of generic PI models                                  • performanc...
Philosophical Emphases            •   Human performance follows specific laws that can often be                predicted an...
Theoretical Foundations                  • Behavioral learning theory,                  • Communications theory,          ...
Early Contributors:             • William Deterline,             •Thomas Gilbert, Joe Harless,             •Roger Kaufman,...
Applications to ID:       •        Evaluation       •        Front-End Analysis       •        Intervention Design and    ...
Research Support Studies of ::            •ElectronicPerformance Support Systems (e.g., Nguyen & Klein, 2008)            •...
Related Concepts:            •              Human Resource Management            •              Organizational Development...
Learners and Learning Processes :    •        The three main individual factors that influence        performance are      ...
Learning and Performance Contexts :  Page                                            AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
Learning and Performance Contexts :                           •                            Critical Contexts              ...
Learning and Performance Contexts :                                •                                 Critical Contexts    ...
Learning and Performance Contexts :                                •                                 Critical Contexts    ...
Instructional and No instructional Strategies                                               Strategies                    ...
Instructional and No instructional Strategies                Imp                   rov                      ed            ...
Instructional and No instructional Strategies                Imp                   rov                      ed            ...
Instructional and No instructional Strategies                Imp                   rov                      ed            ...
Instructional and No instructional Strategies                Imp                   rov                      ed            ...
Instructional and No instructional Strategies                Imp                   rov                      ed            ...
Instructional and No instructional Strategies                Imp                   rov                      ed            ...
Instructional and No instructional Strategies                Imp                   rov                      ed            ...
Designers and Design Processes                                   AjSuE   Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
Designers and Design Processes                    Designer Characteristics                     (expertise and competence) ...
Designers and Design Processes                                                             Analysis                       ...
Designers and Design Processes                                                             Analysis                       ...
Designers and Design Processes                                                             Analysis                       ...
Designers and Design Processes                                                             Analysis                       ...
MODELS OF PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT                     A Comprehensive Performance Improvement Model  Page                ...
Performance                            Cause                     Intervention                        Implementation &     ...
Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions             Intervention                      Description    ...
Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions             Intervention                       Description   ...
Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions           Intervention                        Description    ...
Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions            Intervention                       Description    ...
Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions           Intervention                        Description    ...
For More Information                         The Instructional Design Knowledge                         Base; Theory,REsea...
Page                          AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
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Performance improvement theory

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Performance improvement theory

  1. 1. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT THEORY The Instructional Design Knowledge Base; Theory,REsearch and Practice Rita C. Richey,James D. Klein and Monica W. Tracey aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoNWednesday, July 27, 11
  2. 2. Performance Improvement the ove ns, pr io to im nizat als lied orga vidu 5). e app of ndi rache, 199 PI is concerned with measurable n b ance and i r & B P I ca form ses, mmle performance and how to structure r pe proce s (Ru elements within a results-oriented system (Stolovitch & Keeps, 1999). aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  3. 3. KEYPrinciples The main elements of generic PI models • performance analysis, • cause analysis, • intervention selection, • design and development, • implementation and change management, • evaluation. PI can be applied to PI is concerned with improve performance of measurable outcomes in organizations, processes, results-oriented systems. and individuals. aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoNWednesday, July 27, 11
  4. 4. Philosophical Emphases • Human performance follows specific laws that can often be predicted and controlled (i.e., empiricism). • PI theory reflects the belief that practical findings can be used as the basis for knowledge and meaning (i.e., pragmatism). • Organizational theory emphasizes the use of intrinsic motivation and growth of individual in an organization (i.e., humanism). aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  5. 5. Theoretical Foundations • Behavioral learning theory, • Communications theory, • General systems theory, • Instructional systems design, and • Organizational developmentWednesday, July 27, 11
  6. 6. Early Contributors: • William Deterline, •Thomas Gilbert, Joe Harless, •Roger Kaufman, •Donald Kirkpatrick, •Robert Mager, and •Geary Rummler aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  7. 7. Applications to ID: • Evaluation • Front-End Analysis • Intervention Design and Implementation • Strategies for Promoting Transfer aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  8. 8. Research Support Studies of :: •ElectronicPerformance Support Systems (e.g., Nguyen & Klein, 2008) •Implementation of Performance Interventions (e.g., Rossett & Tobias, 1999; Vadivelu & Klein, 2008) •Review of PI Research (e.g., Clark & Estes, 2002; Klein, 2002; Marker, et al., 2006; Conn & Gitonga, 2002) aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  9. 9. Related Concepts: • Human Resource Management • Organizational Development • Performance Support Systems • Strategic Planning aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  10. 10. Learners and Learning Processes : • The three main individual factors that influence performance are • knowledge, • capacity, and • motives. aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  11. 11. Learning and Performance Contexts : Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  12. 12. Learning and Performance Contexts : • Critical Contexts (orienting, transfer, and performance) Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  13. 13. Learning and Performance Contexts : • Critical Contexts (orienting, transfer, and performance) • Relevant aspects of the performance context (on-the-job environments, organizational impact, and return on investment) Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  14. 14. Learning and Performance Contexts : • Critical Contexts (orienting, transfer, and performance) • Contextual Characteristics (physical resources and materials, managerial and supervisor support, and socio-cultural) • Relevant aspects of the performance context (on-the-job environments, organizational impact, and return on investment) Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  15. 15. Instructional and No instructional Strategies Strategies AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  16. 16. Instructional and No instructional Strategies Imp rov ed Wo rk Env iro nm ent Strategies AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  17. 17. Instructional and No instructional Strategies Imp rov ed Incentives and Rewards Wo rk Env iro nm ent Strategies AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  18. 18. Instructional and No instructional Strategies Imp rov ed Incentives and Rewards Wo rk Env iro nm ent Strategies Job and Organizational Structure Redesign AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  19. 19. Instructional and No instructional Strategies Imp rov ed Incentives and Rewards Wo rk Env iro nm ent Performance Feedback Strategies Job and Organizational Structure Redesign AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  20. 20. Instructional and No instructional Strategies Imp rov ed Incentives and Rewards Wo rk Env iro nm ent Performance Feedback Performance Support Systems Strategies Job and Organizational Structure Redesign AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  21. 21. Instructional and No instructional Strategies Imp rov ed Incentives and Rewards Wo rk Env iro nm ent Performance Feedback Performance Support Systems Strategies cat ion o difi To ol M Job and Organizational Structure Redesign nd ur ce a Page  Reso AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  22. 22. Instructional and No instructional Strategies Imp rov ed Incentives and Rewards Wo rk Env iro nm ent Performance Feedback Performance Support Systems Strategies Training cat ion o difi To ol M Job and Organizational Structure Redesign nd ur ce a Page  Reso AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  23. 23. Designers and Design Processes AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  24. 24. Designers and Design Processes Designer Characteristics (expertise and competence) AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  25. 25. Designers and Design Processes Analysis (cause, cost, environment, gap, job, organization, problem, and performance ) Designer Characteristics (expertise and competence) AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  26. 26. Designers and Design Processes Analysis (cause, cost, environment, gap, job, organization, problem, and performance ) Change Management Designer Characteristics (expertise and competence) AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  27. 27. Designers and Design Processes Analysis (cause, cost, environment, gap, job, organization, problem, and performance ) Change Management Designer Characteristics (expertise and competence) Assessment and Evaluation (formative, summative, and confirmative) AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  28. 28. Designers and Design Processes Analysis (cause, cost, environment, gap, job, organization, problem, and performance ) Change Management Designer Characteristics (expertise and competence) Intervention Selection, Assessment and Evaluation (formative, summative, and Design, Development, confirmative) and Implementation AjSuE Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  29. 29. MODELS OF PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT A Comprehensive Performance Improvement Model Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  30. 30. Performance Cause Intervention Implementation & Analysis Analysis Selection & Design Change Management Organizational Desired Analysis Performance Performance Support cHange Lack of Management Environmental Job & Work Design Support Process Consulting Personal Development Gap Human Resource Employee Analysis Development Development Lack of Repertory Organization Design & Communication Behavior Communication Networking Environmental Actual Financial Systems Analysis Performance Evaluation Formative Summative Confirmative Figure 9.1 A Comprehensive Model of Performance Improvement. From Fundamentals of Performance Technology: A Guide to Improving People, Process, and Performance (2 nd Edition) by D.M. Van Tiem, J.L. Moseley, & J.C. Dessinger, 2004, p.7. Copyright 2004 by the International Society for Performance Page  Improvement (http://www.ispi.org). Used with permission. AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  31. 31. Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions Intervention Description 360-Degree Feedback Employee development feedback obtained from subordinates, peers, and managers in the organization’s hierarchy Accelerated Learning Programs to enable faster retention of specific issues using multiple mediums of learning such as projects, classroom teaching, e-learning, and team-building activities Action Learning Process for group-based problem solving Classroom Training Formal instructor-led programs delivered to develop specific employee skills Coaching/Mentoring Assigning coaches/ mentors to employees for developing their skills Compensation Systems Providing bonuses, stocks, salary increases, and other rewards to motivate employees Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  32. 32. Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions Intervention Description Competency Assessment Competencies evaluated through various assessments for employee selection, certification, and advancement Conflict Management System for handling of conflicts constructively Cultural Change Process for altering the way people think, Management behave, interact, and perform within an organization Diversity Programs Initiatives designed to foster creativity by leveraging the cultural differences among employees E-learning/Web-Based Programs enabling learning on the web Learning (videos, recorded classes, and Virtual resources) Electronic Performance Digital programs that provide just-in-time, on- demand Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  33. 33. Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions Intervention Description Support Systems Information necessary for accomplishing tasks Employee Assistance Programs designed to address work-life balance, professional development, and other personal issues Employee Orientation Introducing and welcoming new employees to the organization and helping them become productive quickly Ergonomics Modifying the physical workplace to enable increased productivity Information Systems Storing and retrieving employee information such as rate of pay, attended classes, vacation hours, etc. Job Aids Method for providing essential information when performer is carrying out the task that reduces amount of recall and minimizes error Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  34. 34. Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions Intervention Description Job Rotation Changing workflow in order to ensure employees are provided opportunities to develop new skills Leadership Development Programs and initiatives that enable development of larders focusing on the interpersonal linkages between individuals in a team Management Development Programs that enable development of managers within organizations Meetings/Dialogue Process for bringing people together to collectively share information, plan, make decisions and solve problems Motivation Systems Process for increasing employee performance by providing external rewards and feedback or by addressing intrinsic rewards by aligning projects with employee interests Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  35. 35. Instructional and No instructional Performance Interventions Intervention Description Organizational Using the company intranet and other Communication corporate communication tools to facilitate organizational change, receive feedback, etc. Physical Resource Providing physical resources and facilities that Management encourage employee performance Performance Appraisal Process for identifying, evaluating, and developing performance of employees Succession Planning Process for identifying, evaluating, and developing performance of employees Teambuilding Creating small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common goal, and hold themselves mutually accountable Virtual Communication Tools and processes that enable remote collaboration of employees in different parts of the globe Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
  36. 36. For More Information The Instructional Design Knowledge Base; Theory,REsearch and Practice Rita C. Richey,James D. Klein and Monica W. Tracey pp. 146-166 Page Wednesday, July 27, 11
  37. 37. Page  AjSuEWednesday, July 27, 11
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