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Creativity Salford 2007

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2nd AHRC Workshop

2nd AHRC Workshop

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  • 1. FOSTERING CREATIVITY IN TEAMS: THE MANCHESTER BUSINESS SCHOOL EXPERIENCE Tudor Rickards 2 nd AHRC Workshop, Salford, May 4 th 2007
  • 2. Creativity in teams: Two key questions
    • Can creativity in work teams be supported effectively through structured interventions?
    • How can creativity of organisational groups be assessed?
  • 3. Some background
    • Theories of creativity
    • Definitional issues
    • Applied research
    • Pioneers, findings and conundrums
  • 4. Theories of creativity
    • Multiple theories from psychology, philosophy, information science …
    • Theories mirror broader conceptual fields The variety of domains partly explains the definitional conundrums
    • One way forward: treat theories in context (action domains).
  • 5. More about definitions
    • Rhodes suggests that definitions address aspects of four overlapping components: The person(s); The products; The processes; The (environmental) press.
    • Working definition: Processes generating new and valued outputs (But, new to whom?; valuable to whom?)
  • 6. Applied research pioneers
    • Torrance (Metrics)
    • Stein (Assessment of techniques)
    • Parnes/Osborn (Brainstorming; Creative Problem Solving Institute)
    • De Bono (Lateral thinking; Cognitive studies institute)
  • 7. Applied research findings
    • Psychological factors block creativity
    • Blocks can be weakened through appropriate structures (‘techniques’)
    • Creative individuals have some common characteristics across domains (ego strength; extended effort with flexibility; intrinsic motivation to create)
  • 8. Stimulating creativity in teams
    • MBS approach established over several decades
    • Applied within project teams exploring real business issues
    • Approach has developed Osborn’s and
    • De Bono’s methods in hundreds of projects
    • Approach found to be very robust across business areas of all kinds
  • 9. Illustrating the MBS approach
    • A team uses ‘Invitations’ to improve novelty and quality of its ideas
    • The team considers starting ideas for a topic
    • These are enriched with ‘reversals’ and ‘wouldn’t it be wonderful if..’ invitations.
    • Structures and supportive team leadership help develop positive attitudes and creative integration (‘Yes and…’)
  • 10. Creative Climate
    • Various studies suggest a supportive climate is associated with creativity in groups
    • Instrumentation pioneered by Ekvall and colleagues in the 1970s
    • More recent inventories by Amabile, Rickards, West
  • 11. Climate and intrinsic motivation
    • Amabile developed her climate measure (KEYS) in the 1980s-1990s
    • She also proposed a theory of intrinsic motivation.
    • A creative climate encourages intrinsic motivation of individuals.
    • This has implications for rewarding creativity by ‘non-transactional’ means
  • 12. Tuckman’s stage model of team development
    • Form
    • Storm
    • Norm
    • Perform
    • The model offers no way of explaining creativity in teams
  • 13. MBS work as an extension to Tuckman’s stage model
    • MBS model suggest that high creative teams behave differently to others in their development
    • Form (more supportive climate)
    • Storm (less damaging storm stage)
    • Perform (more creative performance)
  • 14. The MBS Team Factor Inventory (TFI)
    • TFI developed to explore factors influencing team climate
    • Seven factors identified and validated in multiple studies
    • TFI used to assist team development through creativity training.
  • 15. Platform of Understanding: The 7 team Factors of TFI
  • 16. Summary
    • Build creativity into teams through enabling structures and leadership
    • Use assessment as a learning not labelling aid
    • Create processes, contexts, and opportunities for creative development, as well as products
  • 17. To go more deeply
    • Be a network activator
    • Search widely … chose wisely
    • Creativity and Innovation Management is a good journal for the reflective practitioner
    • http://leaderswedeserve.wordpress.com/ explores creative leadership
    • Creative leadership succeeds ‘by invitation not assertion’

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