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Appreciative inquiry

We live in worlds our questions create’

David Cooperider

Appreciative inquiry

  1. 1. Appreciative Inquiry : Creating Better Future
  2. 2. “Thank God our precious time is now” – M.L. King
  3. 3. A Time to Re-think Human Relationships and Change ...
  4. 4. “No Limits to Cooperation” Power of Wholeness
  5. 5. Realities and Relationships: The “Language of Life”
  6. 6. A Positive Revolution in Change
  7. 7. An Open Moment… We Are “In It.” Now.
  8. 8. Appreciative Inquiry is a Shift… “No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.” “There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle.”
  9. 9. Ap-pre’ci-ate, v., 1. valuing; the act of recognizing the best in people or the world around us; affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials; to perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, excellence) to living systems 2. to increase in value, e.g. the economy has appreciated in value. Synonyms: VALUING, PRIZING, ESTEEMING, and HONORING. In-quire’, v., 1. the act of exploration and discovery. 2. to ask questions; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilities. Synonyms: DISCOVERY, SEARCH, and SYSTEMATIC EXPLORATION, STUDY. What is Appreciative Inquiry ?
  10. 10. What is Appreciative Inquiry? • Appreciative Inquiry is the study and exploration of what gives life to human systems when they function at their best. • This approach to personal change and organization change is based on the assumption that questions and dialogue about strengths, successes, values, hopes, and dreams are themselves transformational. (from The Power of Appreciative Inquiry by Diana Whitney and Amanda Trosten-Bloom)
  11. 11. So...Appreciative Inquiry • Focuses on the “best of what is” • To realise the ideal of “what might be” • With the consent of “what should be” • For the reality of “what can be” (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
  12. 12. "The most serious mistakes are not being made as a result of wrong answers. The truly dangerous thing is asking the wrong question." - Peter Drucker
  13. 13. The Essence of Appreciative Inquiry Positive Core
  14. 14. Appreciative Inquiry - Simply Put… If we look for what is best and learn we can magnify and multiply our suc If we continue to search for problems, we will continue to find problems
  15. 15. AI’s Origins • Research from the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University • David Cooperrider is Professor and Chairman of the Case Center for Business as an Agent of World Benefit • Study at the Cleveland Clinic
  16. 16. A Positive View of Organizations “Organizations are, first and foremost, centers of human relatedness and relationships come alive where there is an appreciative eye, when people see the best in one another and the whole, when they share their dreams and ultimate concerns in affirming ways, and when they are connected in full voice to create not just new worlds, but better worlds. By making it possible for every voice to be heard, a life giving process is enacted.” (from The Appreciative Organization by Harlene Anderson, David Cooperrider, et. al.)
  17. 17. Imagine the difference… What works well in this organization? What problems do we need to fix to make this organization better? Starting with 2 very different questions:
  18. 18. Appreciative Inquiry Principles • Constructionist Principle We construct realities based on our previous experience, so our knowledge and the destiny of the system are interwoven. • Principle of Simultaneity Inquiry and change are simultaneous • Poetic Principle The system’s story is constantly co-authored, and is open to infinite interpretations • Anticipatory Principle What we anticipate determines what we find • Positive Principle As an image of reality is enhanced, actions begin to align with the positive image
  19. 19. Key Understandings of A.I. • Appreciate/value the best of what is • Envision what might be • Engage in dialogue about what should be • Innovate what will be • A cooperative inquiry • A collaborative process • Generate new narratives/perspectives 20
  20. 20. Appreciative Inquiry PROBLEM SOLVING ORIENTATION Fill the Gap APPRECIATIVE ORIENTATION Realize the Possibilities CURRENT STATE THE QUESTIONS What’s wrong? How do we fix it? PAST FUTURE THE QUESTIONS What’s working? What’s possible? What shall we do to achieve it?
  21. 21. Appreciative Inquiry Model Traditional Old Process • Define the problem • Fix what’s broken • Focus on decay What problems are you having? Appreciative Inquiry • Search for solutions that already exist • Amplify what is working • Focus on life giving forces What is working well around here? (Hammond, 1998)
  22. 22. Deficit Based Change : Unintended Consequences  Much lamented fragmented responses  Slow: Puts attention on yesterday’s causes  No new positive images of future  Visionless voice... fatigue  Weakened fabric of relationships & defensiveness…negative culture  out of sync with the embedded economy of speed, partnerships, alliances, & e- commerce
  23. 23. Six Aspects of Change and Development of which to be Aware
  24. 24. Knowledge of the community is critical to determining its destiny.
  25. 25. The seeds of change are implicit in the first questions we ask.
  26. 26. A critical resource we have for creating positive change in our communities is our imagination and the capacity to free the imagination and the mind of groups.
  27. 27. Our imagination and mind are constrained by bad habits, limited styles of thinking, underlying assumptions and traditional rules of organizing.
  28. 28. Our styles of thinking rarely match the increasingly complex worlds in which we work… We need to discover more creative and fruitful ways of knowing.
  29. 29. All systems (organizations and communities), as living constructions, are largely affirmative and respond to positive thought and positive knowledge.
  30. 30. Harnessing Imagination • Appreciative Inquiry gathers positive stories and images • Our minds are stretched by hearing what is possible • Positive images lead to positive action
  31. 31. Positive Image Positive Action • Medical research on the placebo effect. • Medical research on the link between negative and positive effect on healing • Education: Pygmalion Effect • Sports Psychology on the power of imagery of differential self-monitoring. • Emotional Intelligence
  32. 32. Positive Image-Positive Action • Change happens at the level of discourse. • The best clue to a system’s health is to listen to how its members talk about the future.
  33. 33. Positive Image-Positive Action • Our habitual styles of thought, assumptions, and rules of analysis often have ironic consequences of exacerbating the very problems we have so carefully diagnosed. • Energy flows where attention goes.
  34. 34. Appreciative Inquiry Four D’s DISCOVERY “What gives life?” Storytelling – the best of what is. DREAM “What could be?” Imagining the future. DESIGN “What should be?” Provocative propositions. DESTINY “What will we do?” Delivering performance. Cooperrider, Whitney & Stavros,2003
  35. 35. Discovery • What interests or excites you about being here? • What results are you hoping for? • Tell me about a time when you thought --- was at its best. • Tell the story of what was going on, who was involved, and what happened • What did you do? What did you value most about your involvement in that story? • What do you value most about the contribution of others in that story?
  36. 36. Discovery → Dream • Facilitates dialogue among participants • Sharing of positive stories • Creates energy and enthusiasm • Brings out the positive core of the organisation • Begin to see common themes
  37. 37. Dream → Design • Underpinned by palliative care philosophy • Solid foundations • Communication • Shared goals • Seamless service • Responsive • Appropriate levels of funding • Develop relationships with client and family • Multi-disciplinary team (RDNS/EPC Action Research project 2004)
  38. 38. Design Phase • Create the social-technical architecture • Craft provocative proposition(s) • Dream becomes a reality
  39. 39. Good provocative proposition • Bridge the best of “what is” and “what might be” • Challenge the status quo • It should be desirable • State it in the affirmative and bold terms • Fit within the architecture • Zone of proximal development (ZPD) • Participative process • Balance the management of continuity, novelty and transition
  40. 40. Destiny – what will be? Allow yourself to dream and you will discover that destiny is yours to design (Dr J. Stavros)
  41. 41. Action plan: what next? • What can we do - together? • What will we do – to contribute? • How will we do it – to provide optimal client care outcomes?
  42. 42. What would you call it? (all these things taken together)  Achievements  Strategic opportunities  Cooperative Moments  Technical assets  Innovations  Elevated thoughts  Community assets  Positive emotions  Financial assets  Community wisdom  Core competencies  Visions of possibility  Vital traditions, values  Positive macrotrends  Social capital  Embedded knowledge  Business ecosystem +s eg. suppliers, partners, competitors, customer
  43. 43. #1. Moments of Magnified Meaning Making
  44. 44. # 2. Exploring Moments of Leadership in Your Life: A story of a “high point” experience…leading positive change?
  45. 45. #3. Your Vision of a Better World & Your Images and Vision of… Business as an Agent of World Benefit? How Ideally Organized? Practices? Bring Out Best in Human Beings?
  46. 46. 12 Ways to Use Appreciative Questions in Healthcare • To improve patient care • To establish a therapeutic relationship • To identify family capacities for care • To inspire healthy behaviors in our patients • To strengthen interdisciplinary teams • To build camaraderie and trust • To celebrate success • To create a healthy work environment • To make the most of meetings • To foster appreciative leadership • To illuminate “best practices” in quality and safety • To promote learning May N, Becker D, Frankel R, et al. (2011)Appreciative Inquiry in Healthcare: Positive Questions to Bring Out the Best. Crown Custom Publishing Inc
  47. 47. SMART Strategies
  48. 48. Multi-year Strategic Plan Format Provocative Proposition: Goal: Strategy: Steps: Assigned to Assessment measures Timeline / Status 1. 2. 3.
  49. 49. We Live in the Worlds Our Questions Create Be patient … and try to love the questions themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you will then gradually, without noticing it, live along some distant day into the answer. – Rainer Maria Rilke
  50. 50. Learning & Giving for Better Indonesia