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Appreciative Inquiry & Strategy



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Appreciative Inquiry & Strategy

  1. 1. Strategic SOAR-ing with Appreciative Inquiry STORIES FROM THE FIELD Loretta L. Donovan
  2. 2. <ul><li>In a Lego world, the fluid design and ability to connect and reconnect provide a new agility that is a central element of the 21st Century enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Haas Edersheim, The Definitive Drucker </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Appreciative Inquiry? <ul><li>Appreciative Inquiry is a mindset and an approach to organizational development and change which grows out of social constructionist thought. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach offers us all the process and potential to positively explore, collectively imagine, collaboratively design and jointly commit to a path forward. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. Appreciative Inquiry Is Unique <ul><li>A very inclusive process of inquiry, understanding, planning and action </li></ul><ul><li>... leading to the creation of preferred futures </li></ul><ul><li>... built by combining the best of our past with our hopes/aspirations, assets, opportunities and core values </li></ul><ul><li>An exceedingly comprehensive approach to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>... generating “learnings” about businesses, or organizations, or societies, or processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... and translating those “learnings” into practical innovations for our. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An invitation for people to co-create the sort of businesses, or organizations, or societies, or networks in which they want to live. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Identify Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Root Cause Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm Solutions & Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor : </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations are problems to be solved </li></ul><ul><li>Discover “What gives life?” </li></ul><ul><li>Dream The Results We Want </li></ul><ul><li>Design the Organizational Innovations needed “What Should Be” </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver Pilot Projects and Inquire some more </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor : </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations are solutions to be embraced </li></ul>Choices in Strategy Formation & Innovation Deficit-based Approach Asset-based Approach
  6. 6.   Assumptions of A ppreciative I nquiry <ul><li>In every society, organization, group something works </li></ul><ul><li>What we focus on becomes our reality </li></ul><ul><li>Reality is created in the moment, and there are multiple realities </li></ul><ul><li>The act of asking questions of an organization or group influences the group in some way </li></ul><ul><li>People have more confidence and comfort to journey to the future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known) </li></ul><ul><li>If we carry parts of the past forward, they should be what is best about the past </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to value differences </li></ul><ul><li>The language we use creates our reality </li></ul>
  7. 7. 5-D Appreciative Inquiry Cycle DEFINITION Decide what to learn about, how and who to involve in each phase DISCOVERY Conduct the inquiry, Establish and share insights Make public the inquiry results DREAM Envision desired results as if those insights and the positive core were fully alive DESIGN Invent the organizational architecture which will make your dreams inevitable Create Pilot Projects DELIVER (DESTINY) Enact Pilots And Improvise. Expand AI learning Competencies. D D D D D
  8. 8. Purpose of Definition Phase <ul><ul><li>To decide what to focus on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To select an affirmative topic , and relevant questions that delve into its essence in preparation for the appreciative process </li></ul><ul><li>To craft the inquiry process, including stakeholders, format, timing, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Purpose of Discovery Phase <ul><li>To uncover the positive core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths, assets and resources, core values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirations/hopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results we desire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… The underlying conditions present when we’re at our best </li></ul><ul><li>To develop human connections which will allow us to create the sort of innovations and changes we want </li></ul><ul><li>To generate energy and confidence in our ability to create the future </li></ul>
  10. 10. Purpose of Dream Phase <ul><li>To challenge the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>To present new assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>To think and create new possibilities </li></ul>To stretch individual and group thinking and wondering into the future and to envision a preferred future that is bold, compelling and mutually desired .
  11. 11. Purpose of Design Phase <ul><li>To get everyone into the conversation </li></ul><ul><li>To develop ideas about the structures, relationships and practices that will exist when the organization is infused more consistently and strongly with the exceptional capabilities discovered to already exist </li></ul><ul><li>To align values, structures, and processes with the ideal </li></ul>
  12. 12. Purpose of Delivery Phase <ul><li>Co-construct a sustainable preferred future embracing innovation at many levels </li></ul><ul><li>To innovate and experiment with the aligned framework in which people operate and the organization functions </li></ul><ul><li>Build AI learning competencies into the system </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some Organizations Using AI… TDL Retail American Express British Petroleum US Agency for International Development (USAID) US National Intelligence Community YWCA Glaxo Smith Kline Major Private & Public Universities United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Metro Health Systems Schools (US, Canada, South America, Africa) Points of Light Foundation: Volunteer Center Natl Network American Red Cross Newark Beth Israel Medical Center
  14. 14. O rganizational Change Case Studies Shared Responsibility Agreements Community action plans AI approach and skills Negotiation Tables Indigenous Settings Pastoral planning Staff renewal Cluster planning Workshop AI in Catholic settings Renewal Catholic Settings Rural renewal Strategic alliances Mixed stakeholders Envisioning event Culture change Shared vision Community Engagement Agriculture Renewal Low cost – high impact Access Queensland 2 day summit Share integrated service delivery learning Government Service Delivery $5m revenue p.a. Participant Centered Process Workshop 4-D Interests/ Creative dreaming Create it Virtual Community 95% program cost savings ($400 000 / $20 000) Sustained behaviour change Germ busters program Hand washing routines – schools Mentor Change behaviour of school children Improved health outcomes Health Promotion Cabinet endorsed organisation Policy platform established Reference group Scope of inquiry – questions Workshops Strategic direction statement Strategic direction Organisational arrangements Merge cultures Government Department World class facility Zero industrial disputation Scope of Inquiry Workshops – space design Participant centered decisions New faculty Participative decision making University Effective business unit 5 years on Restructure / ABC Business planning Service realignment Staff engagement Business Unit Outcomes Consulting Need  
  15. 15. Some Results…. <ul><li>British Petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Improved R&D support -- 30,000 bopd (barrels of oil per day ) over prior year </li></ul><ul><li>Doubled the size of the business from 100,000 to 200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Hi Lo </li></ul><ul><li>35% higher sales-per-man hour </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of a new employee recognition program and staff newsletter </li></ul>
  16. 16. More Results…. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center Redesign of Patient Transfer Process <ul><li>Increases of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9.3% in nurse satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10.2% in patient satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11% in completion of nutritional assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% in completion of skin assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9.2% and 81.8% in compliance with cardiac enzyme regime and medication administration records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 % in the number of patients able to be transported without a cardiac monitor – with resulting cost savings of 67.5 hours of nursing time per month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other telemetry and medical surgical units have begun to adopt these improvements. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Attempts at altering organizational strategy, operations and culture imply that shifts in performance will occur due to changed or enlightened perspectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Davis & Ziegler, 2000; Kasl & Elias, 2000; Shaw & Taylor, 2000; Yorks & Marsick, 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Deficit-Based Change: Unintended Consequences <ul><li>Slow: Puts attention on yesterday’s causes </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t create new positive images of future </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue, defensiveness, finger pointing </li></ul><ul><li>Downward Spirals in conversation and action </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened teamwork and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Expert mindset – I fix you/your problems (dependency) </li></ul><ul><li>Produces more “vocabularies of human deficit” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Strategy Development <ul><li>Focus on what’s working. </li></ul><ul><li>Build on “Success” of the past work and present work. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on our values and aspirations to create new realities. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-create a shared vision and key themes for moving into the future. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Destiny Design Dream Discover Stavros, Cooperrider & Kelley, 2003 Inquire Imagine Innovate Inspire TRANSFORMATION POINT INTEGRITY INTEGRITY Co-create values, vision, and mission Use AI with customers, suppliers and partners to perform external analysis Use AI with employees to perform internal analysis Transform SWOT into SOAR Develop long-term objectives Develop strategic alternatives and recommendations Develop short-term objectives Develop tactical/functional plans and integrated programs Strategy implementation, deployment, control and continuous improvement TRANSFORMATION POINT TRANSFORMATION POINT
  21. 22. Stavros & Hinrichs, 2007
  22. 23. BAE Systems – Armament Systems Division <ul><li>4-Phase Approach: </li></ul><ul><li>Plan > Implement > Plan a Summit > Implement the Summit </li></ul><ul><li>3 strategic leadership meeting in November 2005, 13 VLS leaders </li></ul><ul><li>planned and executed the “Inquiry Process” of the SOAR framework, focusing on the VLS business. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty-five appreciative interviews were conducted with key stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>executives, program managers, business development, functional managers (HR, controllers, engineering, operations) and customers. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. BAE Systems – Armament Systems Division <ul><li>SOAR and AI Application: </li></ul><ul><li>The main objective was to gather information to develop the five-year strategic plan including the major areas for growth and competitive advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry Phase generated 924 responses which were used by the VLS program to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify core capabilities, opportunities and the most preferred future. These responses also helped to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>further develop: core values, purpose (mission), goals and guiding principles from which to best operate. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. BAE Systems – Armament Systems Division <ul><li>The following was co-created : </li></ul><ul><li>Our core values: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain the highest standards of integrity and ethical behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceed customers’ and shareholders’ expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote individual and team responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value each other, our common mission and our individuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commit to individual and organizational excellence through continuous improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work safely, effectively and efficiently while maintaining environmental responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy the interaction of working together to achieve our goals </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. BAE Systems – Armament Systems Division <ul><li>Our vision: We will strive to be the premier innovator of launching systems solutions for a free world. </li></ul><ul><li>Our mission: We are the recognized premier global launching system supplier because: </li></ul><ul><li>We provide innovative and integrated solutions that meet customer requirements with on-time delivery at the lowest achievable costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Our guiding principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act on all ideas – accept ideas from anyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation-to-Reality Roadmap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation in all aspects of the business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. BAE Systems – Armament Systems Division <ul><li>These principles are becoming part of daily interactions in a global work environment operating virtually over numerous sites. </li></ul><ul><li>They are supported through the Performance Development structure in measuring performance-to-objectives daily. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Imagine Phase the strategic goal and objectives to be achieved within the five years were co-created. </li></ul><ul><li>(For confidentiality reasons, upon request, a few objectives </li></ul><ul><li>can be provided.) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Goal: to be the premier global launching systems supplier and achieve double our sales by 2011. </li></ul>
  27. 31. Key Issues for AI Practitioners <ul><li>S hifting between two paradigms of management . </li></ul><ul><li>A pplying both a macro process frame and micro strategies . </li></ul><ul><li>B alancing the risks and tensions in large-scale participative change work. </li></ul>
  28. 32. Appreciative Alignment
  29. 33. A Great Project Plan Contains…… <ul><li>Project Name </li></ul><ul><li>Project Coordinator’s Name </li></ul><ul><li>List of Team Members </li></ul><ul><li>Provocative Proposition/Goal Statement </li></ul><ul><li>An Action Plan that shows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-three to seven steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-who the lead person is for each step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-dates for each action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- estimated costs (human and $ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Remember to consider your Stakeholders – who are they? Influence on success, how should they be involved?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures of Success - one or two sentences about how we will measure our success </li></ul><ul><li>Expected Results - what will we accomplish for employees or customers or the company? </li></ul>
  30. 34. &quot;Knowledge is information that changes something or somebody – either by becoming grounds for actions, or by making an individual (or an institution) capable of different or more effective action&quot; Peter Drucker
  31. 35. Example Question : Exceptional Arrival Experience <ul><li>Our goal is to provide an exceptional travel experience both in the air and on the ground. The arrival experience is the time to leave a wonderful lasting impression. It also provides the opportunity to recover from any service shortfall the customer might have encountered during the flight. Creating Exceptional Arrival Experiences demonstrates commitment to both our customers and to one another. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe your most memorable arrival experience, as a customer or, as airline personnel. What made it memorable to you? How did it feel? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell me a story about your most powerful service recovery. Describe the situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking to the future, how would you enhance the arrival experience? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Spreading the Stories Reports/Presentations : Circulate a written report in advance of large group meeting (Summit) – sets affirmative tone. Orientation : Build stories into new employee orientation meetings. Newsletter and/or Intranet: Create special column or site to recognize people and their best practices. Interviewer Focus Groups : Bring interviewers together to share stories – fosters cross-functional learning and collaboration.
  33. 37. Spreading the Stories Storytelling Teams : Employee groups available to attend internal or external (e.g., customer) meetings to share positive stories. Video Highlights : Interviewers share findings; played in company cafeterias, at staff meetings, and as part of training sessions. Story Wall: Visual depictions of stories displayed in prominent areas. Meeting Starters : Provide stories to executives for setting tone of creativity and cooperation.
  34. 38. AI Process: Knowledge & Skills Required A doptin g an appreciative mindset Professional obligation: Process Leadership Social Obligation: Partnering in change Managing diversity Life streaming Democratizing strategy Locating and maintaining the energy for change Getting the whole system in the room Empowering participants Integrating micro and macro issues Integrating strategy, structure and culture Facilitating a shared vision Creating social architecture for organizing Transferring ownership of the process Stimulating lots of little fires Sharing responsibility for organizational direction and quality with everyone
  35. 39. Starting Appreciative Interview <ul><li>A  B </li></ul><ul><li>B  A </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of discovery, take brief notes </li></ul><ul><li>At the end... summary & thanks </li></ul>Dialogue in Pairs
  36. 40. Tips for Appreciative Inquiry Interviews <ul><li>Use the interview form as your “script”. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for silence. </li></ul><ul><li>Be genuinely curious about others’ experiences, thoughts and feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for great quotes and take good notes of the quotes or stories, </li></ul><ul><li>Manage your own time. Have fun! </li></ul>
  37. 41. Tell Me a Story: An Inquiry into Your Life’s Work <ul><li>One of life’s great gifts is the opportunity to explore the best of who we are and what we have accomplished and contributed to the world through our work. As you think back over your experiences, wherever your life has taken you, can you tell me a story about one of those special moments in which you were your personal best? Recall in full detail when you were filled with excitement about what you contributed positively to the world through your work? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s start with some things about you and your work…and larger sense of purpose. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it that you do now, and what most attracted you to your present work—the things you find most meaningful, valuable, challenging or exciting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What keeps you doing what you do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When was there a moment or a milestone, where clarity about your life purpose emerged for you, or a time where your calling or work became clearer to you? </li></ul></ul>
  38. 42. Albert Einstein “ No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.”
  39. 43. <ul><ul><li>Loretta L. Donovan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worksmarts Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>914.309.3952 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>

Editor's Notes