Creativity In Management


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Creativity Presentation suited for undergraduate business studies courses

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Creativity In Management

  1. 1. Creativity in Management
  2. 2. Creativity in management Tudor Rickards (2007)
  3. 3. Creativity quiz <ul><li>(1) How would you define creativity </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Can you name a theory which explains creativity </li></ul><ul><li>(3) What proportion of people would you say are creative? </li></ul><ul><li>(4) What has madness, mystery, and magic to do with creativity </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Name an industry famed for its creative discoveries for over a century </li></ul>
  4. 4. Creativity quiz <ul><li>(6) Where does creativity fit into Tuckman’s model of team development? </li></ul><ul><li>(7) How was Tuckman’s model modified to explain creative teams at work? </li></ul><ul><li>(8) Which industries are growing the most rapidly in the 21 st century? </li></ul><ul><li>(9) Whose work helps explain intrinsic motivation? </li></ul><ul><li>10 Whose work helps explain creative clusters? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Creativity has been allied to .. <ul><li>Madness </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery </li></ul><ul><li>Muses </li></ul><ul><li>Magic </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definitions of creativity <ul><li>Discovery processes leading to new and unexpectedly valuable ideas </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Looking where all have looked, and seeing what no one has seen’ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Creativity invades all walks of life
  8. 8. Creativity in management Person Process Place (or ‘ Press’) Product
  9. 9. Theories of creativity <ul><li>Insight theories </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Transcendence </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive reframing </li></ul><ul><li>Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Insight theories: Scientific discoveries <ul><li>Preparation (Knowledge, experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation (‘Gestation’) </li></ul><ul><li>Insight (large or small) </li></ul><ul><li>Validation (Design and testing actions) </li></ul>Intal and Dr Roger Altunyian
  11. 11. Self-actualization theories <ul><li>Creativity is an important concept within humanistic psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers has had particular impact (Maslow also important) </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers considered each individual to have a potential for creative achievement that could be developed through a nurturing environment </li></ul>
  12. 12. Information processing and systems theories <ul><li>Theories are based on complex patterns achieved (‘created’) with simple underpinning rules </li></ul><ul><li>Information theories are used to study and explain creativity in many animal species </li></ul>
  13. 13. Theories of creativity overlap Transcendence Insight Problem solving Systems theories
  14. 14. Creativity: The big questions <ul><li>How can I become more creative? </li></ul><ul><li>How can my team become more creative? </li></ul><ul><li>How can my organization become more creative? </li></ul><ul><li>How can my society or culture become more creative? </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Creative Individual <ul><li>The elitist view: Special and gifted people are born creative (The gifted and talented school) </li></ul><ul><li>The developmental view: Everyone has the potential to fulfil their creative abilities (Carl Rogers) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Creativity in business <ul><li>Creative leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Creative strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Design, discovery and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational change and transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul>
  17. 17. The creative team <ul><li>Teamwork is increasingly seen as the organizational structure for focusing and targeting collective creativity </li></ul>
  18. 18. Team development: Tuckman’s model Form Storm Norm Perform
  19. 19. Unanswered questions of Tuckman’s model <ul><li>What if a team never escapes from the ‘storm’ stage? </li></ul><ul><li>What if team performs beyond the norm (beyond targets and expectations?) </li></ul><ul><li>Where does creativity come into teamwork? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Answering the questions <ul><li>Researchers at MBS have studied a modification to Tuckman’s stage model </li></ul><ul><li>It proposes two barriers to creativity which teams must overcome </li></ul><ul><li>Only a minority of teams do so </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Two-barrier model of team development (MBS) Form Storm Unexpectedly good (creative) performance Performance barrier Behavioral barrier Norm and Perform
  22. 22. The Creative Team <ul><li>Recently the idea of distributed leadership suggests that a team may collectively act as a ‘ superleader ’ (Manz & Sims) </li></ul>
  23. 23. The creative organization <ul><li>Creative industries, and their organizations have increased in importance </li></ul><ul><li>They are fast-growing economically </li></ul><ul><li>They include architecture; arts & antiques: Design, Performing Arts, Electronic games and media </li></ul>
  24. 24. The creative organization: Toyota
  25. 25. The creative organization: Haier
  26. 26. The creative organization: WordPress <ul><li>WordPress is a good example of an entrepreneurial and creative organization …supplying an easy-to-use service for bloggers </li></ul><ul><li>Its growth supports ‘infection’ theories of creativity </li></ul>
  27. 27. The creative organization: Ideo <ul><li>IDEO created Apple's first mouse ; Microsoft's second mouse, and the Palm V PDA . Other major clients include Procter & Gamble , PepsiCo , and Eli Lilly </li></ul>
  28. 28. The creative culture <ul><li>Culture has always developed around creative hotspots of artistic and scientific discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Athens, London, Cambridge(s), Silicon Valley, ‘Madchester’ .. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The creative climate and Intrinsic motivation <ul><li>Teresa Amabile proposed a theory of intrinsic motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>A creative climate allows intrinsic motivation to flourish. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The play’s the thing’ (contrary to economic theories). </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Creative Culture <ul><li>‘ A key driving factor in the divergence or flow of human capital is … the openness of a given location. The more open a place is, the more it will be able to capture the talents of its own people and to attract those from elsewhere.’ (Richard Florida) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Creative Clusters* *Source: Richard Florida
  32. 32. Creative Clusters
  33. 33. And finally <ul><li>When all else fails .. </li></ul><ul><li>there must be other ways.. </li></ul><ul><li>there might be better ways </li></ul>
  34. 34. To go more deeply <ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity Research Journal </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity and Innovation Management </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Creative Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>On Line reference sources explores creativity and creative leadership </li></ul><ul><li> (‘The international center for studies in creativity’) </li></ul>