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Strategies for improving livestock water productivity or moving beyond the elephant’s trunk
 

Strategies for improving livestock water productivity or moving beyond the elephant’s trunk

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A presentation prepared by Don Peden for the second CPWF International Forum on Water & Food, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 9-14, 2008.

A presentation prepared by Don Peden for the second CPWF International Forum on Water & Food, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 9-14, 2008.

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    Strategies for improving livestock water productivity or moving beyond the elephant’s trunk Strategies for improving livestock water productivity or moving beyond the elephant’s trunk Presentation Transcript

    • Strategies for improving livestock water productivity or Moving beyond the elephant’s trunk CPWF International Forum on Water & Food Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-14 November 2008 (A CPWF PN37 output)
    • Chronology (We’ve come a long way!)
      • Before 2003:
        • Livestock “bad” & largely ignored in water management
      • 2006: Vientiane (IFWF1):
        • “ Integrating the unusual ” (e.g., livestock & fish)
    • 2008: Addis Ababa (IFWF2)
      • Agricultural water productivity low
      • Livestock being mainstreamed
      • Livestock: part of sustainable water & food solutions
      • Key message:
        • Livestock can use agricultural water more:
          • Effectively, efficiently, productively, profitably, & sustainably
          • By integrating agricultural water and livestock investments, development & management.
    • Outline
      • Livestock water productivity (LWP):
      • What is it & what do we know?
      • So what?
      • What next?
    • What is livestock water productivity (An entry point for INRM, IWRM & IRBM)
      • Benefits: Meat, milk, hides, traction power, manure, eggs, whole animal sales, drought security, wealth savings, etc.
      • Depleted water: Transpiration, evaporation, discharge & contamination.
      • Units: US$/m 3
        • Better alternatives?
      LWP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) ∑ (Depleted water)
    • In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Agriculture + ecosystem Benefits ** Non- productive losses Transpiration Basic water accounting framework Depletion Ground water Infiltration River basin Watershed Community Household & farm Herd Animal
    • In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. Non- productive losses Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Livestock water productivity challenge Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration
      • More:
      • Benefits
      • Transpiration
      • Recharge
      • Less:
      • Runoff
      • Evaporation
      • Contamination
    • In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Non- productive losses Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Feed sourcing Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration 1. Select low water cost feeds Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc.
    • Select low water cost feeds ( but consider environmental limits & animals’ nutritional requirements)
      • Crop residues
      • Crop by-products
      • Succulents in dry lands unsuited for crops
      Examples Molasses from sugar cane (Sudan) Crop residues (Teff) Pastoral Sudan
    • In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Non- productive losses Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Animal Production Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration
      • Select
      • low water
      • cost feed
      Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. 2. Enhance animal production
    • In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Non- productive losses Four LWP improving strategies: Animal Production Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration
      • Select
      • low water
      • cost feed
      Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc.
      • Genetics
      • Nutrition
      • Vet health
      • Husbandry
      • Marketing
      Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed
    • Enhance animal production (Reduce stress, mortality &morbidity)
      • Select drought hardy animals
      • Promote marketing of dairy products
      • Adopt zero grazing and watering
      Examples
    • In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Conserve water Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration
      • Select
      • low water
      • cost feed
      Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. 2. Enhance animal production 3. Conserve water
    • In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Conserve water Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration
      • Select
      • low water
      • cost feed
      Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc.
      • 3. Manage
      • soil
      • vegetation
      • green water
      • watering
      • waste
      2. Enhance animal production
    • Conserve water (Vegetation and drinking management)
      • Limit animal access to open water and riparian habitats; use drinking troughs.
      • Rehabilitate & maintain extensive rangelands; limit animal numbers & re-establish pasture
      Before After Before After Examples
    • Conserve water - Annual croplands
      • Mosaic of cultivation & local pastures
      • Phase 2 priority: Increase WP of rainfed farming
        • Conservation agriculture – runoff
        • Manure management – fuel or soil fertility
        • Communal pastures – overgrazing
        • Tradeoffs – crop residues for feed or soil?
      Example Source: Hurni (1987) 5 20.9 51.0 Extensive grazing 42 45.0 13.1 Mixed crop + livestock t/ha/year % national loss Estimated soil loss Area (%) Land-use in Ethiopia
    • In - flow Rain Surface in-flow Discharge Evaporation Contamination Grain Residues By-products Fodder Pasture Imported feed Four LWP improving strategies: Watering sites Other losses Transpiration Ground water Infiltration
      • Select
      • low water
      • cost feed
      Meat, milk, hides, traction, manure, etc. 3. Conserve water 2. Enhance animal production 4. Strategic Livestock watering
    • Balance feed & water distribution to increase LWP ( Landscape &basin scales)
      • Low LWP near water points
        • Overgrazing
        • Rain produces little feed. 
      • Low LWP far from watering points
        • Drinking water constraints prevent grazing
      • Solution
        • Limit grazing near water.
        • New water points near surplus feed.
        • Difficult but needed .
    • Example LWP estimate Mixed crop-livestock farms Blue Nile highlands: (Curtis 2007)
      • Net-back analysis
      • Economic price for water
      • Activity’s economic revenue and cost
      • Does activity benefit exceed water cost?
      • Addresses water-use tradeoffs
      • Is activity economically viable?
    • Example LWP estimate Mixed crop-livestock farms Blue Nile highlands: (Curtis 2007) 0.09 Total 0.08 Rainfed 0.09 Irrigated Crop 0.27 Total 0.19 Rainfed 0.33 Irrigated Livestock Mean (USD/m 3 )   Net Back Value of Water
    • LWP --- So what?
    • CPWF experience:
      • LWP
        • Useful communication tool.
        • Helps systematic thinking about livestock & water.
        • Useful within systems to compare management practices and intervention options.
        • Suggests limits to system improvement.
      • But:
        • Cross system comparisons questionable.
        • Need to disaggregate animal species.
        • Trends more important than numbers.
        • LWP: A partial WP.
    • Evidence suggests:
      • 100 to 1000% LWP increase possible.
      • Simultaneous adoption of LWP strategies.
      • Potential contribution high:
        • Rainfed & irrigated systems
        • Multiple uses of water
        • Benefit sharing
        • Adapting to and mitigating climate change.
      • LWP related to poverty, land tenure, markets & land degradation, use and potential.
    • What next? R&D challenges
      • Move from LWP to MUWP.
      • Start at system scale – not livestock scale.
      • Standardize definitions & methods within scales.
          • Manure, crop residues, roots – To partition or not?
          • Spatial & temporal boundaries
          • Denominator – price? volume? or?
          • Numerator – monetary units? Kg? DW? or?
          • Gender disaggregation.
      • Split ET into E and T
      • Coherent methods across scales.
      • Institutional and policy research.
      • Adoption, scaling up, outcomes, impacts.
    • 2008: Addis Ababa (IFWF2)
      • More :
        • Effectively
        • Efficiently
        • Productively
        • Sustainably
        • Profitably
      • By integrating water and livestock:
        • Research
        • Investments
        • Development
        • Management
      • Livestock being mainstreamed
      • Part of sustainable W&F solutions
      • Livestock can use agricultural water
    • 2009 – 2013 LWP Domestic Gender Ecosystems Climate Crops Water Poverty Economics Fish Soil Food Health MUWS Rainfed WP Benefit sharing Drivers of change Phase 2: Many elephants (Many integrated issues!)
    • Thank you all!
      • **Abiye Astatke**Aklilu Alemu**Amare Haileslassie **Befikadu Alemayehu **Brian Owoyesigire**Carlos Sere ** Christoph Studer**David Molden**David Mutetikka**Degefa Birru **
      • **Dejene Aredo **Denis Mpairwe**Doug Merrey**E.N. Sabiiti ** ** Eline Boelee **Elzubair Bashir Taha**Esther van Hoeve **
      • **Everisto Mapezda **Faisal Awad Ahmed **Fitsum Hagos **
      • **Francis Gichuki**Gabriel Kiwuwa**Genet Delelegne**Girma Taddesse**Hamid Faki **I. El-Dukheri**I.A. Goreish** J.A. van de Steeg **Jane Gitau**Jean Ndikumana**John Bennet**Joseph Kyambadde**Kai Sonder**Katrien Deschmaeker ** Kim Geheb **Kinde Engida**Lori Curtis **M.O. Fathelbari **Mario Herrero**Mengistu Alemayehu **Michael Iwadra **Mohamed Abdel Meguid **Mulugeta Tulu**Musa Tibin Musa **Mutasim Mekki **Paulo van Breugel**Salvador Fernandez**Seleshi Bekele**Shirley Tarawali**Simon Cook**Solomon Gebreselassie**Swidiq Mugerwa**Teferi Abegaz**Tesfaye Kumsa**Tilahun Amede**Wagnew Ayalneh **Yassir Mohamed **Zziwa Emmanuel