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Climate Smart Agriculture on the ground


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This presentation was prepared to conduct a training session on Climate-Smart Agriculture at the University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, in September 2014.


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Climate Smart Agriculture on the ground

  1. 1. Aslihan Arslan, FAO-EPIC Climate Change Governance Course, CDI-WUR 17.09.2014
  2. 2. Outline I. Assessing CSA • Food Security • Adaptation • Mitigation II. CSA Success Stories – FAO III. CSA Success Stories – Others IV. Breakout Group Exercise
  3. 3. Assessing CSA Food Security • Identify indicators to measure FS contributions of interventions – Productivity of crops, livestock, fisheries, forestry products – The stability of production under climate stress – Improvements in crop/total income – Availability of a diverse & nutritious diet – Access to markets to improve availability • Compare with business as usual scenario – Including costs & benefits
  4. 4. Assessing CSA Adaptation Altering exposure Reducing Sensitivity Improving adaptive capacity • Assess impacts and map hazard zones • Conduct proper land and wateruse planning • Protect watersheds and establish flood retention zones • Change cropping patterns Mitigation • Develop or adopt suitable crop, plant and animal varieties • Improve irrigation and drainage systems • Diversify cropping and agricultural activities • Adopt disaster-prevention • Develop adaptive strategies and action plans • Diversify sources of household income • Improve water and other infrastructure systems • Establish disaster and crop insurance schemes CO2  rate of deforestation and forest degradation,  adoption of improved cropland management practices (soil conservation) CH4, N2O improved animal production and management of livestock waste, more efficient management of irrigation water on rice paddies, improved nutrient management on cropland Sequestering carbon restoration of degraded soil, increased organic matter inputs to cropland, improved forest management practices, afforestation and reforestation, agro-forestry, improved grasslands management
  5. 5. Quantifying and targeting mitigation in ag: The FAO EX-Ante Carbon balance Tool (EX-ACT) • An Excel based tool to quantify the amount of GHGs released or sequestered from activities in the AFOLU sector • Requires activity data on agricultural practices, resource use and land use change • Calculates estimated GHG impacts in tonnes of CO2-equivalents largely using the IPCC 2006 guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories • Allows project designers to adjust investment projects to simultaneously provide economic and mitigation benefits • The EX-Ante Carbon balance Tool (EX-ACT): Logic and Application
  6. 6. Conservation agriculture Watershed management The EX-Ante Carbon balance Tool EX-ACT Training Workshop Adapted crop and farming practices Irrigation and water management Crop and income loss risk management Disaster risk management (flood, drought...) Livestock and grassland management Management of irrigated rice Synergies: Main agriculture options Adaptation Mitigation
  8. 8. Preserving the Agro-forestry system on Mount Kilimanjaro What makes it Climate Smart? Food and income: to be improved via conversion to certified organic coffee farming; introduction of vanilla as a high value additional cash crop; and introduction of trout aquaculture along the canals of the irrigation system. Adaptation: Rehabilitation of the irrigation system to reduce water loss and to cope with longer dry seasons due to climate change; training in sustainable land management. Mitigation: Sustainably managed “Kihamba” system increases carbon storage.
  9. 9. Coffee shrubs and banana trees in the Kihamba layered vegetation, Tanzania © FAO/D. Hayduk
  10. 10. Andean agriculture: the importance of genetic diversity What makes it Climate Smart? Food and income: to be increased and stabilized through genetic diversity Adaptation: Traditional terraced farming systems maintain soil fertility and improve the resilience of the agro-ecosystem while providing suitable breeding stocks needed to adapt production to climate change Mitigation: This program does not aim to provide mitigation benefits.
  11. 11. Varieties of potato for sale at the local market, Peru © FAO/S. Cespoli
  12. 12. A landscape approach for policy making, planning and monitoring-Kagera river basin What makes it Climate Smart? Food and income: to be improved through restoration of degraded lands, increased production and use of agricultural biodiversity Adaptation: A participatory multi-sector process to asses and map land degradation and sustainable land management (SLM) to improve adaptation Mitigation: Carbon sequestration though incorporation of trees and improved crop & livestock management
  13. 13. Carbon finance to bring back grasslands in Three Rivers region of China 271 Households 22,615 ha 14,354 sheep 9,216 yaks …are part of the project to improve livelihoods and resilience through sustainable grassland management and better livestock marketing while receiving carbon credits What makes it Climate Smart? Food and income: Improved pastures feed more animals and people. Upgraded husbandry and marketing add value to products. Adaptation: Restoring degraded grassland builds resilience to climate change by increasing soil moisture and nutrient retention. Mitigation: Thriving grasslands are a huge carbon sink. In its first 10 years, the mitigation potential is estimated at 63,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year.
  15. 15. Drought-Tolerant Maize for Africa DTMA >100 DT maize varieties Released in 13 countries 20-30% more yield >2 million smallholders More than 2 million smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa are now growing drought-tolerant maize varieties that build resilience and increase yields and productivity What makes it Climate Smart? Food and income: Drought-tolerant maize varieties are increasing yields even under moderate drought conditions, thus raising income for farmers. Adaptation: The new varieties will enable farmers to cope with more frequent droughts projected as a result of climate change. Mitigation: Farmers could potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions by combining the use of drought-tolerant maize with practices such as no-till agriculture/agroforestry.
  16. 16. DTMA
  17. 17. Alternate wetting and drying for more efficient rice farms in Vietnam Reduce water use up to 30% Reduce methane emissions by 48% Potential for 3.2 million ha Decrease input use MARD’s 2011 policy aims for 3.2 million hectares of improved rice cultivation with AWD by 2020 What makes it Climate Smart? Food and income: AWD maintains productivity & lowers water use and emissions. Reduced input use (water, fertilizers, insecticides) decreases costs and thus raises incomes. Adaptation: Reducing water use by up to 30% through AWD enables rice farmers in areas with growing water stress to continue to cultivate rice without adverse impacts on yield. Mitigation: AWD decreases the methane emissions by around 50% from rice cultivation
  18. 18. Index-based livestock insurance for climate resilience in Kenya and Ethiopia Based on real-time satellite data Productive safety net Involve commercial insurers Incentivize investments IBLI was first piloted in northern Kenya in 2010, then following the success of the pilot it was expanded into southern Ethiopia in 2012 What makes it Climate Smart? Food and income: Droughts and other extreme weather events are marked by food insecurity, and the pay-outs received from IBLI enable pastoralists to fulfil their food needs. Adaptation: Insurance increases pastoralists’ resilience to extreme weather. Mitigation: This program does not aim to provide mitigation benefits.
  19. 19. Breakout Session: Assessing the CSA potential of case studies 1. Asses the local situation: climate change, agriculture, food security • What are priorities? 2. Identify contributions to all CSA pillars 3. Identify indicators for measurement & monitoring • Which existing data sources? • Additional data & analysis needs? • Barriers to adoption? 4. Identify synergies and/or tradeoffs 5. Identify potential funding sources 6. Report to the plenary
  20. 20. Guiding Questions 1. Which dimensions of food security are addressed by project? 2. Adaptation to slow onset CC or extreme events? 3. If there are mitigation co-benefits: does it aim to decrease emissions and/or increase sinks/sequester carbon? 4. What are institutional enabling factors/ barriers to adoption? 5. Policy bottlenecks if any?
  21. 21. Thank you! FAO-EPIC TEAM: Aslihan Arslan, Solomon Asfaw, Giacomo Branca, Louis Bockel, Andrea Cattaneo, Romina Cavatassi, Uwe Grewer, Misael Kokwe, Leslie Lipper, Wendy Mann, Nancy McCarthy, George Phiri, Alessandro Spairani and Linh Nguyen Van Climate-Smart Agriculture in Kiroka, Tanzania © FAO/D. Hayduk