Toward a LWP assessment methodology: a contribution to the Karkheh CPWF workshop

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A presentation prepared by Don Peden to the Karkheh CPWF workshop, ICARDA, Syria, April 2005.

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Toward a LWP assessment methodology: a contribution to the Karkheh CPWF workshop

  1. 1. Toward a LWP Assessment Methodology A contribution to the Karkheh CPWF workshop ICARDA, Syria, April 2005 Presented by Don Peden, ILRI
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Background & context </li></ul><ul><li>What is livestock water productivity (LWP)? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Some methodological questions </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-basin collaboration </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background: Why Livestock? <ul><li>Generates income for poor farmers (especially women) & pastoralists. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a drought coping livelihood strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional basis of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally important. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality nutrition & health. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal power. </li></ul><ul><li>Overgrazing? </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on water resources. </li></ul>Kenana Dairy Corporation, Sudan supported by irrigated residue
  4. 4. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Demand water for animal products to 2025 Meat & Milk consumption in SSA is increasing rapidly! <ul><li>Market & dev. Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Similar forces drive demand for irrigation and animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting this demand can help poor people generate income </li></ul>
  5. 5. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Livestock densities in SSA (TLU/km 2 ) <ul><li>Agricultural intensification attracts livestock production </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation is associated with highest livestock densities </li></ul>
  6. 6. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Integrated livestock & water planning lacking <ul><li>Irrigation attracts animals, but planning historically lacking. </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low LWP </li></ul></ul>Water, water everywhere, but not a drop to drink!
  7. 7. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Livestock, annual cropping & sedimentation <ul><li>Sources of soil loss and sedimentation in Ethiopia, </li></ul><ul><li>the “water tower of the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Annual croplands contribute greatly to siltation of water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Improved INRM including livestock is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock are part of problem, but soil management is most important. </li></ul>Source: Hurni, 1989
  8. 8. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Poorly planned expansion of irrigation and rainfed farming sparks conflict with herders <ul><li>“ Conflict … rooted in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>6 Million … farmers & herders. </li></ul><ul><li>Graziers migrate from arid North to South after August rains. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional tribal laws settled conflict & people co-existed. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent drought in 1980s forced herders into arable land. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for resources turned violent. </li></ul>4 Oct 2004 An SSA-wide problem!!!
  9. 9. The Nile project <ul><li>Goal : Improve human well-being and livelihoods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More productive and equitable use of Nile water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better livestock management to safeguard water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four objectives : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess Livestock-water productivity in diverse Nile production systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community management of livestock & water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy for water & livestock in the Nile Basin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination and capacity building. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved livestock management is essential for effectively increasing Nile water productivity </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Nile: Diverse production systems Nile Basin PLUS: Urban & peri-urban <ul><li>Mixed rainfed humid/sub-humid </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock grazing semi-arid </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed rainfed temperate highland </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock grazing humid/sub-humid </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed irrigated semi-arid & arid </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Nile: Where are the animals? Tropical Livestock Units per Km 2 <1 1-10 10-20 20-30 >30 Nile Basin
  12. 12. Background: The Nile Basin <ul><li>Estimated TLU and maintenance water in the Nile Basin Part of the Riparian Countries </li></ul><ul><li>1 TLU = 250 kg live wt </li></ul><ul><li>Assume 4 people /TLU </li></ul><ul><li>Animal & human biomass equal </li></ul><ul><li>Animal feed >= human food </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: If water limits human food security, then it also limits animal production. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is Livestock Water Productivity (LWP)? <ul><li>Ratio of beneficial livestock outputs (products and services) to water depleted in producing them. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of over-all water productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-scalar concept – Local to national to global . </li></ul>
  14. 14. LWP: based on water accounting concepts WATER ENABLED OUTPUTS Beneficial: Grain, other foods, animal feed, wood, fibre Wild biodiversity Meat, milk, eggs, hides, power, manure, wealth Exported water Non-beneficial: Discharge Floods Contamination Land evoporation Transpiration Degraded/devalued Commited outflow Uncommited outflow Export Plant production Livestock production Ground water In- flow Recharge Rain Surface Inflow
  15. 15. Framework for assessing livestock water productivity (LWP) In - flow Imported feed Livestock play multiple roles that affect water productivity Trees Pasture/range Food crops Feed Grazing & watering Feed Sourcing DRINK Discharge/flood Ground Ground & soil water recharge Rain Surface In flow Evaporation Degradation Transpiration Animal production Plant production Husbandry, health & genetics
  16. 16. Key LWP entry points: <ul><li>Improved feed sourcing strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved grazing and watering strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic provision of dinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving animal productivity OR Enhancing the transpiration to output link. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Relation between % crop residue in animal feed and LWP in irrigated and non-irrigated households in the Awash basin, Ethiopia Crop residue (% of total feed) Example feed sourcing strategy
  18. 18. Selected investment options Effective feed sourcing strategies <ul><li>Increase water productivity by feeding crop residues to animals because no extra water is used. </li></ul><ul><li>But, protect soil by returning some residue and manure. </li></ul><ul><li>Added value of animal production with little use of water increases profitability and provides farm power. </li></ul>Teff for Feed
  19. 19. Dry season feed availability for livestock of irrigator and non-irrigator households probably affects productivity per animal (e.g., Godino, Ethiopia) Irrigated Non-irrigated
  20. 20. Water harvesting and livestock: Belatu’s story (Preliminary results - Sasakawa Global 2000 & ILRI collaboration) 1997: Subsistence & family income less than $50/year Example feed sourcing and watering strategy
  21. 21. <ul><li>NOW: </li></ul><ul><li>2 underground tanks @ 65 m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>$1500; year round; multiple sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Crops: 2 or 3 per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic, onion, tomatoes . </li></ul><ul><li>Milk: From <1 to 20 l/day </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 6 $/day with value added. </li></ul><ul><li>SUCCESS FACTORS: </li></ul><ul><li>Intensified command area agric. </li></ul><ul><li>Market access. </li></ul><ul><li>More effective use of labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Value added production (milk). </li></ul><ul><li>WH increased rainfed LWP for dairying. </li></ul><ul><li>Education. </li></ul>Water harvesting and livestock: Belatu’s story (Preliminary results - Sasakawa Global 2000 & ILRI collaboration) 1997: Subsistence & family income less than $50/year
  22. 22. <ul><li>Good years: cattle increase up to 90/HH. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought years: about half die. </li></ul><ul><li>Most kept for wealth and drought insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 18/HH needed for food and income. </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting herd size to 40/HH could: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>save one billion m 3 year (1000 micro-dams) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>save feed to support animals in dry years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rainwater “saved” can help restore biodiversity, sequester carbon & provide ecosystem services. </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and institutions needed. </li></ul>WLP in rainfed Borana pastoral areas: A water demand management approach Borana Plateau Ethiopia 90,000 km 2 325,000 people 1,000,000 cattle
  23. 23. <ul><li>Continuous drinking water increases LWP </li></ul><ul><li>Provide watering sites in pastoral areas with feed surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Fasciolosis and other water-borne disease </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation tillage that reduces need for livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Improved animal nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Animal breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Area-wide integration = integrated river basin mgt. </li></ul><ul><li>Select lean rather than “fatty” animals </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy animal health and food safety standards needed for trade in animals and animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Community based approaches to management of grazing and watering areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce sedimentation through mitigation of up-slope soil loss. </li></ul>Some other possible LWP options
  24. 24. Basin WP - Data needs <ul><li>Stratifying basins into agricultural production systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date livestock census data (FAO/ILRI/NARS?) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard integrators – TLU, Western AU, Iranian AU, or? </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions of animal diets (seasonal feed sourcing strategies). </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration and associated evaporation for feed production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(RS or field based surveys) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gendered & multi-scaled value of animal outputs and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies of options to improve watering and grazing practices and feed sourcing strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal productivity indicators linking transpiration to outputs (animal health, genetics, husbandry, etc). </li></ul>
  25. 25. Should we think beyond WP and identify investment domains where with high potential for improving WP? Ag. Production systems Available Discret. water Market access Plus Urban livestock 15 Water-Livestock Development Domains Human pop. density
  26. 26. Final thought: Preliminary estimate of water depleted for maintenance feed production in the Karkheh Basin Water transpired or depleted for livestock production in the Karkheh basin based on FAO livestock corrected estimates 2000 * Many assumptions made and available on request* 563 6.60 TOTAL 243 2.78 Sheep 189 1.79 Goats 132 2.03 Cattle Million m 3 water transpired Million animal units 1 AU = 45 kg sheep
  27. 27. We look forward to collaborating with you to develop a CPWF-wide approach to assessing WP. Thank you! Water for Feed Drinking Water Health & Environment

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