Livestock feeds in the CGIAR Research ProgramsAlan DuncanFAO West Africa Regional Workshop on CropResidues, Dakar 10-13 December 2012
ILRI in the CGIAR Research Programs ILRI leads one CGIAR Research Program– ‘Livestock and Fish’. ILRI leads a component of one CGIAR Research Program– ‘Agriculture for Nutrition and Health’ This component works to prevent and control agriculture-associated diseases, including food-borne diseases, zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases. ILRI participates in five other CGIAR Research Programs Drylands Humid Tropics Policies, Institutions and Markets Water, Land and Ecosystems Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security
Livestock and Fish: More Meat, Milk and Fish, For and By the Poor• Lead centre: ILRI• Other major centres/partners: Worldfish, ICARDA, CIAT
Basic Idea: Solution-driven R4D to achieve impact
Approach: Solution-driven R4D to achieve impact
Livestock and Fish CGIAR Research Program More m e a t, m ilk a nd fis h for a nd by the p o o r SHEEP & GOATS AQUACULTURE PIGS DAIRY
Feed in Livestock and Fish ProgrammePathwaysoValue chain framework to define a set of research areasaround: o producing more and better feeds o making better use of feeds that exists o processing, densification, redistribution/transfer o implications of feeding systems on labour/gender/ecological footprint etcOutcomeoBy-product and forage based feeding systems used in VC thatsignificantly increase per animal productivity such as doublingmilk production thereby reducing the ecological footprint per unitproduce through reduction in animal numbers
Example outputso Output 2.1: Prevalent feeding system for each considered VC characterized (2012) o Major on farm feed resources in developing VC determined and feeding regimes/feed use characterized (2012) o Key feeds/feed components on the markets and their price: quality relations determined o Regional (above district level) feed resources estimates aggregated from appropriate administrative units (2013)o Output 2.2: Feed resource basis assessed relative to production target (2013) o Quantitative and qualitative feed availability gaps quantified relative to VC production targets (2013) 8
Example outputso Output 3.1: Refined and validated tools and methods for prioritizing feed intervention (2013) o Tools such as Techfit field tested and employed in VC (2012)o Output 3.2: Potentially superior food-feed crop cultivars and forages for VC identified through CIAT, ICARDA and ILRI research and development work (2012) o Potentially superior food-feed and forage cultivars identified (2012) o Superior food-feed and forage cultivars made available to VC (2013, 2014)o Output 3.3: Promising feed, fodder and forage processing options o Simple on-farm feed processing option for increased feed intake and decreased wastages available (2013) o Decentralized business based feed processing enterprises suggested (2014) o Feed options/livestock productivity compared carbon foot prints
Humidtropics: Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (CRP1.2)• Lead centre: IITA• Other major centres/partners: ICRAF, CIP, CIAT, Bioversity, ICIPE, ILRI, IWMI, AVRDC
Potential feed-related research topics in Humidtropics CRP
Crop Livestock integration• Manure management – labour issues - nutrient cycling – crop –livestock integration. With increasing livestock confinement looking at options for tighter manure management.• Conservation agriculture – livestock lens. Combining inorganic and organic manures. Turning some of the knowledge around manure management and nutrient cycling into local innovations on the ground – addressing some of the constraints to sub-optimal management.• Modelling on nutrient cycling at different scales (from field to landscape)
Whole farm productivity• Looking at whole farm productivity. Assess how interventions in different farming enterprises (crops, livestock, off-farm) affect whole farm productivity and environmental footprint.• Whole farm modelling approaches.• Gender angle to this and we could develop tools and approaches to improve women’s participation.
Simple tools for technology prioritization• FEAST (Feed assessment tool) – rapid feed resource assessment and participatory development of intervention strategies• Techfit – tool for prioritizing feed technologies based on availability and requirements for land, labour, cash, inputs and knowledge• SLATE – Sustainable livelihoods assessment tool. Rapid characterization of farm typologies to help target interventions.
Looking at whole system feed opportunities• Feed opportunities often not recognized because they are not local• E.g. Cassava peel in Nigeria – Cassava is one of IITA’s mandate crops. ILRI has strong interest in CR. – DM from residue in Nigeria = 1 m tonnes per year 99% of which is left to rot. Could be recycled through animals. – Most of the labour for cassava peeling is provided by women. Could look at mechanisms for value added in favour of women. – How to feed to animals? Wet or dry? Pelletizing? Ensiling? For which livestock species? What moisture content allows processing and so on? Transport options.• Links with feed component of CRP3.7. e.g. case of sorghum stover in Andhra Pradesh
Mitigating livestock bads• Environmental impacts of intensifying livestock production.• For example – Intensifying systems in SE Asia – backyard pigs in areas of high population density. Effects on water quality, aerial emissions etc. – Improving livestock production efficiency to reduce GHG emissions – some desk assessments. – ILRI has started a mitigation programme to identify mitigation options (labs in East Africa, GHG measurements, productivity and economic assessments and modelling)
Innovation (R4D) platforms• ILRI has a lot of experience now in application of innovation systems concepts. Many projects in many locations.• ILRI has also been experimenting with business development service hubs in East Africa Dairy Development project• Could use this background to develop system BDS hubs - wider than dairy or even livestock e.g. crop inputs, livestock inputs, tree establishment inputs.• Links with CRP2 – ILRI leads the smallholder value chain component.
Livestock-tree interactions• Potential research areas – Effects of livestock on tree establishment – trees and livestock feed – implications of tree introduction on labour e.g. for livestock feeding. – Lots of gender implications.
Dealing with biomass crisis• Devising and assessing ways to derive more biomass from crop-based systems – improving residue quality/quantity – assessing fodder traits of existing cereal cultivars – relay cropping/inter cropping – trees on boundaries• Building on global study on crop residue use in smallholder systems funded by Systemwide Livestock Programme.